APUSH Key Terms - Quarter 2 (set #1)

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Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)

also known as the Florida Purchase Treaty and the Transcontinental Treaty; under its terms, the United States paid Spain $5 million for Florida, Spain recognized America's claims to the Oregon Country, and the United States surrendered its claim to northern Mexico (Texas).


American System

set of proposals by Henry Clay that called for a national bank, protective tariffs, and internal improvements; their goal was American economic self-sufficiency.


Andrew Jackson

U.S. general who defeated the Native Americans at Horseshoe Bend and commanded the victory over the British at New Orleans; he became a national hero as a result of his record in the War of 1812 and later rode that fan:e to the presidency.


Battle of New Orleans

a major battle of the War of 1812 that actually took place after the war ended; American forces inflicted a massive defeat on the British, protected the city, and propelled Andrew Jackson to national prominence.


Chesapeake-Leopard Affair

incident in 1807 that brought on a war crisis when the British warship attacked the American warship; the British demanded to board the American ship to search for deserters from the Royal Navy. When the U.S. commander refused, the British attacked, killing or wounding 20 American sailors. Four alleged deserters were then removed from the Chesapeake and impressed. Many angry and humiliated Americans called for war.


Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)

case in which the Supreme Court prevented New Hampshire from changing this charter to make it a public institution; the Court held that the contract clause of the Constitution extended to charters and that contracts could not be invalidat­ ed by state law. The case was one of a series of Court decisions that limited states' power and promoted business interests.


Embargo Act (1807)

law passed by Congress stopping all U.s. exports until British and French interference with U.S. merchant ships stopped; the policy had little effect except to cause widespread economic hardship in America. It was repealed in 1809.


Fletcher v. Peck (1810)

Supreme Court case that established the Court's power to invalidate state laws contrary to the Constitution; in this case, the Court prevented Georgia from rescinding a land grant even though it was fraudulently made.


Gibbon v. Ogden (1824)

landmark case in which the Supreme Court struck down a New York law that granted a monopoly to certain steam­ boats operating between New York and New Jersey; the ruling expanded the powers the Constitution gave Congress to regulate interstate commerce. It was another of the cases during this period whereby the Supreme Court expanded federal power and limited states' rights.


Hartford Convention

meeting of New England state leaders in 1814; among other trungs, the delegates called for restrictions on embargoes and limits on pi'esidential tenure. The end of the war brought an end to the gathering, but it was later branded as unpatriotic and helped bring on the collapse of the Federalist Party.


Henry Clay

a leading American statesman from 1810 to 1852; he served as a member of Congress, Speaker of the House, senator, and secretary of state and made three unsuccessful presidential bids. He was known as the Great Compromiser for his role in the compromises of 1820, 1833, and 1850.



the forceful drafting of American sailors into the British navy; between 1790 and 1812, over ten thousand Americans were impressed, the British claiming that they were deserters from the Royal navy. This was the principle cause of the War of 1812.


John .Marshall

Chief Justice of the Uni.ted States Supreme Court, 1801-1835; arguably America's most iIlJluentiClJ Chief Justice, he authored Court decisions that incorporated Hamilton's Federalist ideas into the COnstituti6-n. He alSo established the principle of judicial review, which gave the Court equality with the other branches of government.


Louisiana Purchase

an 828,000-square-mile region purchased from France in 1803 for $15 million; the acquisition doubled the size of the United States and gave it control of the Mississippi River and New Orleans. Jefferson uncharacteristically relied on implied powers in the Constitution (loose construction) for the authority to make the purchase.


Macon's Bill No.2 (1810)

modified embargo that replaced the Non­ Intercourse Act of 1809; this measure reopened trade with both Britain and France but held that if either agreed to respect America's neutrality in their conflict, the United States would end trade with the other.


Marbury v. Madison (1803)

court case that established the principle of judicial review: which allowed the Supreme Court to determine if federal laws -were constitutional. In this case, the Court struck down part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, which the justices believed gave the Court power that exceeded the Constitution's intent.


McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)

Supreme Court case in which the Court established the supremacy of federal law over state law; in this case, the Court set aside a state law that attempted to control the actions of the BaltiInore branch of the Second National Bank by taxing it. By preventing this state from regulating the Bank, the ruling strengthened federal supremacy, weakened states' rights, and promoted commercial interests.


Missouri Compromise (1820)

settlement of a dispute over the spread of slavery that was authored by Henry Clay; the agreement had three parts: (1) Missouri became the twelfth slave state; (2) to maintain the balance between free states and slave states in Congress, Maine became the twelfth free state; (3) the Louisiana territory was divided at 36° 30', with the north­ ern part closed to slavery and the southern area allowing slavery. This com­ promise resolved the first real debate over the future of slavery to arise since the Constitution was ratified.


Monroe Doctrine (1823)

issued to counter a perceived threat from European powers to the newly-independent nations of Latin America; it
proclaimed: (1) no new colonization in the western hemisphere; (2) existing colonies would not be interfered with; and (3) the United States would not interfere in European affairs. It became the cornerstone of U.S. Latin American policy for the next century.


Non-Intercourse Act (1809)

replaced the embargo policy by allowing American trade with all countries except Britain and France; like the Embargo'Act, this attempt to use American trade as an instrum'ent of for­ eign policy failed. British and French interference with U.S. shipping contin­ ued and the Non-Intercourse Act was repealed in 1810.


Panic of 1819

severe depression that followed the econornic boom of the . post-War of 1812 years; the Second National Bank, tryu1g to dampen land
speculation and inflation, called loans, raised interest rates, and received the blame for the panic. All this helped divide the commercial interests of the East from the agrarian u1terests of an expandu1g West.


Second Bank of the United States

national bank organized in 1816; closely modeled after the first Bank of the United States, it held federal tax receipts and regulated the amount of money circulating U1 the economy. The Bank proved to be very unpopular among western land speculators and farmers, especially after the Panic of 1819.


Treaty of Ghent (1815)

agreement that ended the War of 1812 but was silent on the causes of the war; all captured territory was returned and unresolved issues such as ownership of the Great Lakes ~ere left to future negotiation.


War Hawks

young Congressmen in the 12th Congress from the South and West who demanded war with Britain; led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun, they hoped to annex Canada, defend U.S. maritime rights, and end troubles with Native Americans in the Trans-Appalachian West.

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