Chapter 1 Thinking Critically Rehearse It!

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Thinking Critically with Psychological Science
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1

In 1879, in psychology’s first experiment, _____ and his students measured the time lag between hearing a ball hit a platform and pressing a key.

A)Jean Piaget
B)William James
C)Sigmund Freud

D)Wilhelm Wundt

2

prominent psychology text was published in 1980. Its author was published in 1890. Its author was

A)Wilhelm Wundt
B)Mary Whiton Calkins
C)Carl Rogers

D)William James

3

In early twentieth century, _____ redefined psychology as “the science of observable behavior.”

A)John B. Watson
B)Abraham Maslow
C)William James
D)Sigmund Freud

A)John B. Watson

4

The perspective in psychology that focuses on how behavior and thought differ from situation to situation and from culture to culture is the

A)Cognitive perspective
B)Behavioral perspective
C)Social-cultural perspective
D)Neuroscience perspective

C)Social-cultural perspective

5

In history of psychology, a major topic has been the relative influence of nature versus nurture. Nature is to nurture as

A)Personality is to intelligence
B)Biology is to experience
C)Intelligence is to biology
D)Psychological traits is to behavior

B)Biology is to experience

6

A psychologist using behavioral perspective would be most likely to study

A)The effect of school uniforms on classroom behavior
B)The hidden meaning in children’s themes and drawings
C)The age at which children can learn algebra
D)Whether certain mathematical abilities appear to be inherited

A)The effect of school uniforms on classroom behavior

7

A psychologist treating emotionally troubled adolescents at a local mental health agency is most likely to be a(n)

A)Research psychologist
B)Psychiatrist
C)Industrial-organizational psychologist
D)Clinical psychologist

D)Clinical psychologist

8

A psychologist conducting basic research to expand psychology’s knowledge base would be most likely to

A)design a computer screen with limited glare and assess the effect on computer operators’ eyes after a days work
B)treat older people that are overcome with depression
C)observe 3- and 6-year-olds solving puzzles and analyze differences in abilities
D)interview children with behavior problems and suggest treatment.

C)observe 3- and 6-year-olds solving puzzles and analyze differences in abilities

9

Hindsight bias refers to our tendency to

A)Perceive events as obvious or inevitable after the fact
B)Be more confident than correct in estimating distance
C)Overestimate our ability to predict the future
D)Make judgments that fly in the face of common sense

A)Perceive events as obvious or inevitable after the fact

10

As scientists, psychologists view theories with curiosity, skepticism, and humility. This means that they

A)Approach research with a negative cynicism.
B)Assume that an article published in a reputable journal must be true
C)Believe that every important human question can be studied scientifically
D)Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research

D)Are willing to ask questions and to reject claims that cannot be verified by research

11

A newspaper article describes how a “cure for cancer has been found” A critical thinker probally will

A)Dismiss the article as untrue
B)Accept the information as a wonderful breakthrough
C)Question the article, evaluate the evidence, assess the conclusion
D)Question the article but quickly accept it as true if the author has an excellent reputation

C)Question the article, evaluate the evidence, assess the conclusion

12

The predictions applied by a theory are called

A)Operational definition
B)Correlations
C)Hypothesis
D)Replications

C)Hypothesis

13

Which of the following is NOT one of the techniques psychologists use to observe and describe behavior

A)A case study
B)Naturalistic observation
C)Correlational research
D)A phone survey

C)Correlational research

14

14.You wish to take an accurate poll in a certain country by questioning people who truly represent the countries adult population. Therefore, you need to ensure that you question

A)At least 50 percent males and 50 percent females
B)A small but intelligent sample of the population
C)A very large sample of the population
D)A random sample of the population

D)A random sample of the population

15

A study finds that the more childbirth training classes women attend, the less pain medication they require during childbirth. This finding can be stated as a(n)

A)A positive correlation
B)Negative correlation
C)Cause-effect relationship
D)Illusory correlation

B)Negative correlation

16

Knowing that two events are correlated provides

A)A basis for prediction
B)An explanation as to why the events are related
C)Proof that as one increases, the other also increases
D)An indication that an underlying third factor is at work

A)A basis for prediction

17

Some people wrongly perceive that their dreams predict future events. This is an example of a(n) _____ correlation

A)Negative
B)Positive
C)Illusory
D)Naturalistic

C) Illusory

18

Description and correlational studies describe behavior, detect relationships, and predict behavior. But to explain behaviors, psychologists use

A)Naturalistic observation
B)Experiments
C)Surveys
D)Case studies

B)Experiments

19

To test the effect of a new drug on depression, we randomly assign people to control and experimental groups. Those in the experimental group take a pink pill containing the new medication; Those in the control group take a pink pill that contains no medication. But to explain behaviors, psychologists use

A)The medication is the dependent variable
B)Depression is the independent variable
C)Participants in the control group take a placebo
D)Participants in the experimental group take a placebo

C)Participants in the control group take a placebo

20

A double-blind procedure is often used to prevent researchers’ biases from influencing the outcome of an experiment. In this procedure

A)Only the participants know whether they are in the control group or the experimental group
B)Experimental and control group members will be carefully matched for age, sex, income, and education level.
C)Neither the participants nor the researchers know who is on the experimental group or control group
D)Someone separate from the researcher will ask people to volunteer for the experimental group or the control group.

C)Neither the participants nor the researchers know who is on the experimental group or control group

21

A researcher wants to determine whether noise level affects the blood pressure of elderly people. In one group she varies the level of noise in the environment and records participants’ blood pressure. In this experiment, the level of noise is the

A)Control condition
B)Placebo
C)Dependent variable
D)Independent variable

D)Independent variable

22

The laboratory environment is designed to

A)Exactly recreate the events of everyday life
B)Recreate psychological forces under control conditions
C)Create opportunities for naturalistic observation
D)Minimize the use of animals and humans in psychological research

B)Recreate psychological forces under control conditions

23

Which of the following is true regarding gender differences and similarities

A)Differences between the genders outweigh and similarities
B)Despite some gender differences, the underlying processes of human behavior are the same
C)Both similarities and differences between the genders depend more on biology than on environment
D)Gender differences are numerous, it is difficult to make meaningful comparisons.

B)Despite some gender differences, the underlying processes of human behavior are the same

24

In defending their experimental research with animals, psychologists have noted that

A)Animals’ psychology and behavior can tell us much about our own
B)Animal experimentation sometimes helps animals as well as humans
C)Advancing the well-being of humans justifies animal experimentation
D)All of these statements are correct

D)All of these statements are correct


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