AP Practice Chapter 9

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Thinking, Language, and intelligence
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1

When her professor failed to recognize that Judy had her hand raised for a question, Judy began to think her professor was unfriendly. Although she subsequently learned that the professor's limited vision kept him from seeing her raised hand, she continued thinking the professor was unfriendly. Judy's reaction best illustrates

A)Belief perseverance
B)Confirmation bias
C)Category hierarchies
D)The framing effect

A)Belief perseverance

2

When retested on WAIS, people’s second scores generally match their first scores quite closely. This indicates that the test has a high degree of

A)Predictive
B)Content validity
C)Reliability
D)Heritability

C)Reliability

3

During a lecture, your professor says, "A child learns language as he interacts with caregivers." This generic use of the pronoun "he" is more likely to trigger images of males than of females. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)Language on thinking
B)Fixation on problem solving
C)Telegraphic speech on universal grammar

A)Language on thinking

4

Because he erroneously believes that older workers are not as motivated as younger workers to work hard, a factory foreman is especially vigilant for any signs of laziness among his senior workers. His supervision strategy best illustrates:

A)The framing effect.
B)The representativeness heuristic
C)Confirmation bias
D)The availability heuristic

C)Confirmation bias

5

Prompt feedback regarding your performance on psychology practice tests is most likely to inhibit:
A)Overconfidence
B)The framing effect
C)The representativeness heuristic
D)Linguistic determinism

A)Overconfidence

6

Which language theorist would have been most likely to emphasize that children master the rule for forming the past tense of regular verbs like “push” before they learn common past tense constructions of irregular verbs like “go”?
A)Tversky
B)Skinner
C)Whorf
D)Chomsky

D)Chomsky

7

A defense attorney emphasizes to a jury that her client works full-time, supports his family, and enjoys leisure-time hobbies. Although none of this information is relevant to the trial, it is designed to make the defendant appear to be a typical member of the local community. The lawyer is most clearly seeking to take advantage of:

A)Confirmation bias
B)Algorithms
C)The representativeness heuristic
D)Belief perseverance

C)The representativeness heuristic

8

8.Which procedure is used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie people’s intelligence scores?

A)Heritability estimates
B)Standardization
C)Validation
D)Factor analysis

A)Heritability estimates

9

Vocal sounds that are not included in one’s native language first begin to disappear from usage during the ____ stage of language development.

A)Telegraphic
B)Babbling
C)Two-word
D)One-word

B)Babbling

10

When Phoebe strongly disagrees with her sister’s opinion, she effectively controls her own anger and responds with empathy to her sister’s frustration regarding their dispute. Her behavior best illustrates

A)Divergent thinking
B)Analytic intelligence
C)Emotional intelligence
D)Factor analysis

C)Emotional intelligence

11

In attempting to find and purchase high-quality cosmetics, Megan reminds herself that the most expensive brands are the best. Megan's self-reminder illustrates the use of:

A)Confiemation bias
B)An algorithm
C)A heuristic
D)Framing

C)A heuristic

12

An 8-year-old who responded to the original Stanford-Binet with the proficiency of an average 10-year-old was said to have an IQ of

A)100
B)125
C)110
D)80

B)125

13

Increasing years of schooling over the last half century have most likely contributed to

A)Neural plasticity
B)Stereotype threat
C)The Flynn effect
D)The normal curve

C)The Flynn effect

14

Pigeons can reliably discriminate pictures of cars from pictures of chairs. This best illustratres their capacity to develop

A)Heuristics
B)Syntax
C)Concepts
D)Algorithms

A)Heuristics

15

Women have been found to score lower on math tests when they are tested alongside men. This best illustrates the impact of

A)Intrinsic motivation
B)The Flynn effect
C)Intrinsic motivation
D) Stereotype threat

D) Stereotype threat

16

Exposure to language during a critical period is conducive for effectively establishing the settings of a child's:

A)Algorithms.
B)Category hierarchy.
C)Telegraphic speech.
D)Language acquisition device.

D)Language acquisition device.

17

Managers who want to foster creativity in the workplace should try to increase the ________ of their employees.

A)Convergent thinking
B)Factor analysis
C)Intrinsic motivation
D)Emotional intelligence

C)Intrinsic motivation

18

Before publishing her test of musical aptitude, Professor Reed first administered the test to a representative sample of people. This was most clearly necessary for test:

A)Standardization.
B)Reliability.
C)Heritability.
D)Validity.

A)Standardization.

19

Comparing the academic performance of those who score extremely low on intelligence tests with those whose scores are extremely high is an effective way to highlight the tests':

A)Standardization.
B)Heritability.
C)Reliability.
D)Validity.

D)Validity.

20

Stereotype threat is most likely to depress female students' performance on a difficult ________ test and to depress male students' performance on a difficult ________ test.

A)Math problem solving; verbal fluency
B)verbal fluency; math problem solving
C)Spatial abilities; athletic abilities
D)Athletic abilities; spatial abilities

A)Math problem solving; verbal fluency

21

In her research, Professor Kyoto seeks to identify circumstances in which confirmation bias is especially likely to impede effective problem solving. Which specialty area does her research best represent?

A)biological psychology
B)developmental psychology
C)personality psychology
D)clinical psychology
E)cognitive psychology

E)cognitive psychology

22

Arnold had difficulty recognizing that bullfighting was a sport because it failed to resemble his ________ of a sport.

A)phoneme
B)prototype
C)algorithm
D)heuristic

B)prototype

23

In attempting to solve difficult sexual assault cases, a police detective frequently reminds himself to focus investigative suspicion on the victims' friends and acquaintances. This strategy best illustrates the use of:

A)an algorithm.
B)a heuristic.
C)telegraphic speech.
D)the framing effect.

B)a heuristic.

24

People are often unable to come up with the simple solutions to some of the three-jugs problems presented in the text because they repeat more complicated solutions that worked in the past. This best illustrates the dynamics of:

A)the framing effect.
B)functional fixedness.
C)the availability heuristic.
D)artificial intelligence.
E)a mental set.

E)a mental set.

25

Brutus believes that men enjoy watching professional football and that women are categorically distinct from men. His gender stereotypes are so strong, however, that he mistakenly reasons from these premises the illogical conclusion that women do not enjoy watching professional football. His reasoning difficulty best illustrates:

A)confirmation bias.
B)the framing effect.
C)the availability heuristic.
D)belief bias.
E)functional fixedness.

D)belief bias.

26

Maintaining one's conceptions even after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited is known as:

A)the representativeness heuristic.
B)belief perseverance.
C)confirmation bias.
D)functional fixedness.
E)the availability heuristic.

B)belief perseverance.

27

The word “chimps” contains ________ phoneme(s) and ________ morpheme(s).

A)5; 1
B)6; 2
C)1; 5
D)2; 6

A)5; 1

28

Adding -ed to the word “laugh” means that the action took place in the past. This illustrates one of the rules of English:

A)semantics.
B)algorithms.
C)syntax.
D)phonemes.

A)semantics.

29

To simulate the learning of the statistical relationships among language terms, researchers are likely to make use of:
A)telegraphic speech.
B)the framing effect.
C)computer neural networks.
D)the representativeness heuristic.

C)computer neural networks.

30

Your ability to recall which direction you turn the faucet handle in your bathroom in order to get cold water best illustrates the importance of:

A)algorithms.
B)the framing effect.
C)thinking without language.
D)the representativeness heuristic.
E)the belief perseverance phenomenon.

C)thinking without language.

31

We more quickly recognize that a blue jay is a bird than that a penguin is a bird because a blue jay more closely resembles our________ of a bird.

A)heuristic
B)prototype
C)algorithm
D)phoneme

B)prototype

32

Prototype is to category as ________ is to ________.

A)wheel; car
B)milk; beverage
C)waiter; restaurant
D)comedian; laughter

B)milk; beverage

33

To find Tabasco sauce in a large grocery store, you could systematically search every shelf in every store aisle. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:

A)the availability heuristic.
B)Functional fixedness.
C)an algorithm.
D)Belief perseverance.
E)the representativeness heuristic.

C)an algorithm.

34

Max is so used to thinking that a tough competitive style of behavior is the best way to impress others that he fails to recognize that the most effective way to impress his girlfriend is with cooperative tenderness. Max's oversight best illustrates:

A)a fixation.
B)the framing effect.
C)the representativeness heuristic.
D)functional fixedness.
E)overconfidence.

A)a fixation.

35

Pablo vainly searches for a screwdriver while failing to recognize that a readily available coin in his pocket would turn the screw. His oversight best illustrates:

A)functional fixedness.
B)the availability heuristic.
C)belief perseverance.
D)the framing effect.
E)the representativeness heuristic.

A)functional fixedness.

36

The easier it is for people to remember an instance in which they were betrayed by a friend, the more they expect such an event to recur. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)framing.
B)belief perseverance.
C)the representativeness heuristic.
D)functional fixedness.
E)the availability heuristic.

E)the availability heuristic.

37

College students are more likely to judge a condom as effective when informed that it has a 95 percent success rate than when told it has a 5 percent failure rate. This best illustrates the impact of:

A)framing.
B)confirmation bias.
C)functional fixedness.
D)belief perseverance.
E)the representativeness heuristic.

A)framing.

38

Professor Chadwick evaluated a graduate student's research proposal negatively simply because he had heard a rumor about the student's incompetence. When later informed that the rumor had been patently false, the professor's assessment of the student's research proposal remained almost as negative as ever. This best illustrates:

A)the representativeness heuristic.
B)functional fixedness.
C)the availability heuristic.
D)belief perseverance.
E)framing.

D)belief perseverance.

39

A computer program designed to process the information in a psychology textbook and correctly answer multiple-choice questions regarding the text contents illustrates an application of:

A)linguistic determinism.
B)functional fixedness.
C)the framing effect.
D)artificial intelligence.
E)telegraphic speech.

D)artificial intelligence.

40

In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns, as in “white house.” This illustrates a rule of English:

A)semantics.
B)algorithms.
C)syntax.
D)phonemes.

C)syntax.

41

The two-word stage of language development typically begins at the age of ________ months.

A)6
B)10
C)14
D)24
E)36

D)24

42

42.The fact that children speak with an accent that is similar to their peers is best explained by ________ theory of language acquisition.

A)Skinner's
B)Whorf's
C)Chomsky's
D)Frisch's

A)Skinner's

43

Learning a spoken language during childhood ________ the learning of sign language during adolescence. Learning sign language during childhood _______ the learning of a spoken language during adolescence.

A)inhibits; facilitates
B)facilitates; inhibits
C)inhibits; inhibits
D)facilitates; facilitates

D)facilitates; facilitates

44

Using different words for two very similar objects enables people to recognize conceptual distinctions between the objects. This illustrates:

A)telegraphic speech.
B)linguistic determinism.
C)functional fixedness.
D)the representativeness heuristic.

B)linguistic determinism.

45

When choosing who should retrieve food for them, humans prefer someone who has witnessed it being hidden. Chimps do not. This best illustrates that chimps have a more limited:

A)prototype.
B)confirmation bias.
C)theory of mind.
D)representativeness heuristic.

C)theory of mind.

46

Chimpanzees are capable of learning to:

A)understand spoken words.
B)string signs together into a meaningful sequence.
C)use computer keyboards to communicate with other chimps.
D)do all of the above.

D)do all of the above.

47

Syntax refers to the:

A)orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences.
B)derivation of meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences.
C)smallest speech unit that carries meaning.
D)most logical and methodical procedure for solving a problem.

A)orderly arrangement of words into grammatically sensible sentences.

48

The principles of learning emphasized by behaviorists would be most helpful in explaining why children:

A)master the complicated rules of grammar with ease.
B)add new words to their vocabulary.
C)make systematic speech errors because they overgeneralize grammatical rules.
D)babble even when they have deaf parents.

B)add new words to their vocabulary.

49

According to Chomsky, the fact that young children overgeneralize certain rules of grammatical structure suggests that:

A)language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement.
B)language acquisition does not proceed in an orderly sequence.
C)language acquisition develops normally even in the absence of social interaction.
D)parents overemphasize correct grammatical usage.

A)language skills are not developed simply through the processes of imitation and reinforcement.

50

At 17 months of age, Julie says “wada” whenever she wants a drink of water. Julie is most likely in the ________ stage of language development.

A)semantic
B)babbling
C)oneword
D)telegraphic speech
E)phonetic

C)oneword

51

Jahmal cites his cousin Luana's many car accidents as evidence that women are worse drivers than men. He overlooks the fact that his wife and three daughters have had far fewer car accidents than he and his two sons. Jahmal's prejudicial conclusion about women's driving skills best illustrates the effects of:

A)functional fixedness.
B)algorithms.
C)confirmation bias.
D)the framing effect.
E)the representativeness heuristic.

C)confirmation bias.

52

People more easily detect male prejudice against women than female prejudice against men because the former more closely resembles their ________ of prejudice.

A)syntax
B)heuristic
C)algorithm
D)prototype
E)mental set

D)prototype

53

Framing refers to:

A)the way in which a problem or issue is phrased or worded.
B)a methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
C)the grouping of similar objects, events, or people into a category.
D)a simple thinking strategy for solving problems efficiently.

A)the way in which a problem or issue is phrased or worded.

54

In the words “lightly,” “neatly,” and “shortly,” the “ly” ending is a(n):

A)algorithm.
B)phenotype.
C)phoneme.
D)morpheme.
E)prototype.

D)morpheme.

55

Judging the likelihood that things fall into a certain category on the basis of how well they seem to match a particular prototype refers to the use of the:

A)framing effect.
B)availability heuristic.
C)confirmation bias.
D)belief perseverance
E)phenomenon.
F)representativeness heuristic.

F)representativeness heuristic.

56

A mental set is a:

A)methodical step-by-step procedure for solving problems.
B)mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people.
C)tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past.
D)group of conclusions derived from certain assumptions or general principles.

C)tendency to approach a problem in a way that has been successful in the past.

57

57.Research on the language capabilities of apes indicates that they cannot:

A)translate spoken words into signs.
B)acquire a vocabulary of more than two dozen signs.
C)use signs to communicate with other members of their own species.
D)grammatically order language symbols as well as most 3-year-old children.

D)grammatically order language symbols as well as most 3-year-old children.

58

To promote cognitive efficiency, concepts are typically organized into:

A)mental sets.
B)algorithms.
C)neural networks.
D)hierarchies.

D)hierarchies.

59

Jamilla systematically tried each successive key on her dad's key ring until she found the one that unlocked his office door. This best illustrates problem solving by means of:

A)belief perseverance.
B)an algorithm.
C)the representativeness heuristic.
D)the availability heuristic.
E)functional fixedness.

B)an algorithm.

60

Encouraging people to explain why their own personal views on an issue are correct is most likely to promote:

A)functional fixedness.
B)use of the representativeness heuristic.
C)linguistic relativity.
D)belief perseverance.
E)the framing effect.

D)belief perseverance.

61

Business managers are more likely to track the career achievements of those they once hired than the accomplishments of those they once rejected. This best illustrates:

A)the representativeness heuristic.
B)functional fixedness.
C)the framing effect.
D)confirmation bias.
E)neural networks.

D)confirmation bias.

62

Most people take less time to identify a cow as a mammal than a mouse as a mammal because a cow more closely resembles their ________ of a mammal.

A)prototype
B)mental set
C)heuristic
D)algorithm

A)prototype

63

The tendency to conclude that a person who likes to read poetry is more likely to be a college professor of classics than a truck driver illustrates the use of:
A)the availability heuristic.
B)confirmation bias.
C)the framing effect.
D)belief perseverance.
A)the representativeness heuristic.

A)the representativeness heuristic.

64

Professor Thompson's research activities involve the use of computers to simulate human decision-making strategies. Which specialty area does this research best represent?

A)personality psychology
B)cognitive psychology
C)biological psychology
D)clinical psychology
E)developmental psychology

B)cognitive psychology

65

Psychologists are most likely to question whether chimps have the capacity to:

A)infer another chimp's mental states.
B)discern numerical order.
C)invent and transmit customs.
D)form concepts.

A)infer another chimp's mental states.


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