The secretions of the adrenal medulla act to supplement the effects of ________.
A) parasympathetic innervation
B) sympathetic stimulation
C) vagus nerve activity
D) neurosecretory substances
In contrast to the somatic nervous system, the autonomic nervous system uses ________.
A) a two efferent neuron chain
B) a two afferent neuron chain
C) no acetylcholine
D) both afferent and efferent fibers equally
Preparing the body for the ʺfight-or-flightʺ response is the role of the ________.
A) sympathetic nervous system
C) parasympathetic nervous system
D) somatic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is characterized by peripheral ganglia usually near the
A) organs and by short postganglionic fibers
B) organs and by long postganglionic fibers
C) spinal cord and by short postganglionic fibers
D) spinal cord and by long postganglionic fibers
A drug that might be used specifically to reduce heart rate in cardiac patients could be
D) a beta-blocker
The parasympathetic ganglion that serves the eye is the ________.
A) ciliary ganglion
B) pterygopalatine ganglion
C) submandibular ganglion
D) otic ganglion
Cardiovascular effects of the sympathetic division include all except ________.
A) constriction of most blood vessels
B) dilation of the vessels serving the skeletal muscles
C) increase of heart rate and force
D) dilation of the blood vessels serving the skin and digestive viscera
Over 90% of all parasympathetic fibers are derived from cranial nerve number ________.
The ʺresting and digestingʺ division of the autonomic nervous system is the ________.
A) parasympathetic division
B) sympathetic division
C) somatic division
D) peripheral nervous system
Control of temperature, endocrine activity, and thirst are functions associated with the
Which of these effectors is not directly controlled by the autonomic nervous system?
A) smooth muscle
B) cardiac muscle
C) skeletal muscle
D) most glands
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
B) dilation of the pupils
C) increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
D) elimination of urine
The site of origin of the preganglionic fibers of the parasympathetic nervous system is the
A) thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord
B) higher brain centers
C) sympathetic chain
D) brain stem and the sacral region of the spinal cord
Sympathetic responses generally are widespread because ________.
A) inactivation of ACh is fairly slow
B) NE and epinephrine are secreted into the blood as part of the sympathetic response
C) preganglionic fibers are short
D) preganglionic fibers are long
Sympathetic nerves may leave the spinal cord at which vertebrae?
A) second cervical
B) third lumbar
C) first coccyx
D) first thoracic
Autonomic ganglia contain ________.
A) an outer connective tissue capsule around the cell bodies of preganglionic motor neurons
B) synapses between postganglionic fibers and their effectors
C) the cell bodies of motor neurons
D) both somatic afferent and efferent neurons
The parasympathetic fibers of the ________ nerves innervate smooth muscles of the eye which
cause the lenses to bulge to accommodate close vision.
Fibers that enter and leave the sympathetic chain without synapsing form structures called
A) white rami communicantes
B) gray rami communicantes
C) spinal nerves
D) splanchnic nerves
Visceral reflex arcs differ from somatic in that ________.
A) visceral arcs contain two sensory neurons
B) somatic arcs contain one additional component that visceral arcs do not possess
C) visceral arcs involve two motor neurons
D) visceral arcs do not use integration centers
The parasympathetic tone ________.
A) prevents unnecessary heart deceleration
B) accelerates activity of the digestive tract
C) determines normal activity of the urinary tract
D) causes blood pressure to rise
The autonomic nervous system ________.
A) cannot be self-controlled
B) has one primary division
C) is not affected by drugs
D) is directly controlled by the reticular formation of the brain stem
The white rami communicantes ________.
A) are found only in the C1-T1 cord segments
B) are unmyelinated
C) carry preganglionic axons to the sympathetic chain
D) carry postganglionic fibers to the periphery
A) increase a dangerously low heart rate
B) decrease heart rate and blood pressure
C) have widespread sympathetic effects
D) are potent antidepressants
Erection of the penis or clitoris ________.
A) is primarily under sympathetic control
B) is primarily under parasympathetic control
C) is the result of coordinated activation by both sympathetic and parasympathetic input
D) depends very little on autonomic activation
Which is a uniquely sympathetic function?
A) regulation of pupil size
B) regulation of cardiac rate
C) regulation of respiratory rate
D) regulation of body temperature
Raynaudʹs disease ________.
A) is characterized by exaggerated vasoconstriction in the extremities
B) is induced by heat stress
C) occurs primarily in association with injury to the spinal cord
D) is frequently life-threatening
Autonomic dysreflexia ________.
A) is also known as autonomic areflexia
B) involves uncontrolled activation of autonomic neurons
C) usually precedes spinal shock
D) results from overexcitatory input from the cortex
In Hornerʹs Syndrome ________.
A) sympathetic innervation of a segment of the colon fails to develop
B) blood flow to the extremities is irregular
C) a vagotomy is required to reverse the pathology
D) damage to the sympathetic trunk causes loss of ability to sweat on one side
In aging, autonomic inefficiency is often due to ________.
A) clogging of preganglionic axon terminals with filaments
B) cerebral hemorrhage
C) major loss of axons
D) peripheral vascular changes
Sympathetic fibers leave the spinal cord in the ________.
A) craniosacral regions, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
B) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
C) craniosacral region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete acetylcholine
D) thoracolumbar region, and the postganglionic fibers secrete norepinephrine
Where would you not find an autonomic ganglion?
A) in the head
B) in the cervical region
C) close to the visceral effectors they serve
D) in the armpit
Sympathetic division stimulation causes ________.
A) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood
B) increased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood
C) increased blood glucose, decreased GI peristalsis, and increased heart rate and blood
D) decreased blood glucose, increased GI peristalsis, and decreased heart rate and blood
The smooth muscle of the digestive viscera is served largely by the ________.
A) lumbar splanchnic nerves
B) cephalic plexus
C) pelvic nerves
D) tenth cranial nerve
The route of major parasympathetic outflow from the head is the ________.
A) sympathetic trunk
B) phrenic nerve
C) vagus nerve
D) sacral nerve
Parasympathetic functions include ________.
A) a stimulation of heart rate and force of contraction
B) allowing the body to cope with an external threat
C) lense accomodation for close vision
D) mobilizing storage energy sources
All preganglionic axons of the autonomic nervous system release ________.
C) the same transmitter as the only one released by the sympathetic postganglionic axons
D) the same transmitter as the one released by parasympathetic postganglionic axons
Emotions influence autonomic reactions primarily through integration in the ________.
A) lateral horn of the spinal cord
C) lateral geniculate of the thalamus
D) inferior colliculus
The possibility of some control over autonomic responses is demonstrated by ________.
A) split brain studies
B) stress-induced hypertension
The vagus nerve does not innervate the ________.
C) parotid gland