Chapter 18: The Heart

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Basic study of the heart and cardiovascular system
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1

Describe the size, shape, location, and orientation of the heart in the thorax.

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Size: fist, weighs less than a pound
Shape: broad, flat base (9cm) and apex points toward left hip
location: frontal plane, between lungs, most mass is on left, but projects out more to right to balance the heart
Orientation: rests on superior surface of diaphragm, anterior to vertebral column, posterior to sternum

2

Coverings of the heart.

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Fibrous Pericardium
Serous Pericardium

3

Fibrous Pericardium

Structure: superficial part of double-walled sac surrounding the heart; consists of dense connective tissue
Function: (1) protects heart (2) anchors it to surround structures (3) prevents overfilling of heart with blood

4

Serous Pericardium

parietal: lines internal surface of fibrous pericardium; attaches to large arteries exiting the heart
visceral (epicardium): thin membrane that continues over the external heart surface

5

Pericardial Cavity

between the parietal and visceral layers; slitlike cavity that contains a film of protein-rich fluid

6

Stroke Volume (SV)

Amount of blood ejected by one contraction of the heart.

7

End Diastolic Volume (EDV)

Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of relaxation

8

End Systolic Volume (ESV)

Amount of blood in the ventricle at the end of contraction

9

Cardiac Output (CO)

The amount of blood ejected from the heart in one minute

10

Heart Rate (HR)

The frequency at which the heart beats


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