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Exercise 40: Anatomy of the Urinary System

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created 7 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 617 - pg 620

updated 7 years ago by jncanf

Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

THE KIDNEY IS REFERRED TO AS AN EXCRETORY ORGAN BECAUSE IT EXCRETES __1__ WASTES. IT IS ALSO A MAJOR HOMEOSTATIC ORGAN BECAUSE IT MAINTAINS THE ELECTROLYTE, __2__ AND __3__ BALANCE OF THE BLOOD.

1. NITROGENOUS
2. ACID-BASE
3. FLUID

2

URINE IS CONTINUOUSLY FORMED BY THE __4__ AND IS ROUTED DOWN THE __5__ BY THE MECHANISM OF __6__ TO A STORAGE ORGAN CALLED THE __7__. EVENTUALLY, THE URINE IS CONDUCTED TO THE BODY __8__ BY THE URETHRA.

4. KIDNEYS
5. URETERS
6. PANSTALSIS
7. BLADDER
8. EXTERIOR

3

IN THE MALE, THE URETHRA IS __9__ CENTIMETERS LONG AND TRANSPORTS BOTH URINE AND __10__. THE FEMALE URETHRA IS __11__ CENTIMETERS LONG AND TRANSPORTS ONLY URINE.

9. 20
10. SPERM
11. 4

4

VOIDING ON EMPTYING THE BLADDER IS CALLED __12__. VOIDING HAS BOTH VOLUNTARY AND INVOLUNTARY COMPONENTS. THE VOLUNTARY SPHINCTER IS THE __13__SPHINCTER. AN INABILITY TO CONTROL THIS SPHINCTER IS REFERRED TO AS __14__.

12. MICTURATION
13. EXTERNAL
14. INCONTINENCE

5

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE FAT CUSHION THAT SURROUNDS THE KIDNEYS IN LIFE?

PERIRENAL FAT CAPSULES ANCHOR THE KIDNEYS TO THE DORSAL BODY WILL IN A RETROPERITONEAL POSITION & CUSHIONS IT AGAINST BLOWS.

6

DEFINE PTOSIS

KIDNEYS ARE LESS SECURELY ANCHORED AND DROP TO A MORE INFERIOR POSITION.

7

WHY IS INCONTINENCE A NORMAL PHENOMENON IN THE CHILD UNDER 1 1/2 TO 2 YEARS OLD?

BECAUSE THEY HAVE NOT YET GAINED MUSCLE CONTROL OVER THEIR EXTERNAL SPHINCTER.

8

WHAT EVENTS MAY LEAD TO ITS OCCURRENCE IN THE ADULT?

SPINAL CORD INJURY, EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS, BLADDER IRRITABILITY, OR SOME OTHER PATHOLOGY OF THE URINARY TRACT.

9
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10

SMOOTH MEMBRANE, TIGHTLY ADHERENT TO THE KIDNEY SURFACE

FIBROUS CAPSULE

11

PORTION OF THE KIDNEY CONTAINING MOSTLY COLLECTING DUCTS

MEDULLA

12

PORTION OF THE KIDNEY CONTAINING THE BULK OF THE NEPHRON STRUCTURES

CORTEX

13

SUPERFICIAL REGION OF KIDNEY TISSUE

CORTEX

14

BASINLIKE AREA OF THE KIDNEY, CONTINUOUS WITH THE URETER

RENAL PELVIS

15

A CUP-SHAPED EXTENSION OF THE PELVIS THAT ENCIRCLES THE APEX OF A PYRAMID

MINOR CALYX

16

AREA OF CORTICAL TISSUE RUNNING BETWEEN THE MEDULLARY PYRAMIDS

RENAL COLUMN

17
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A. AFFERENT ARTERIOLE
B. EFFERENT ARTERIOLE
C. CORTICAL RADIATE ARTERY
D. CORTICAL RADIATE VEIN
E. ARCUATE ARTERY
F. ARCUATE VEIN
G. INTERLOBAR ARTERY
H. INTERLOBAR VEIN
I. COLLECTING DUCT
J. LOOP OF HENLE
K. PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES
L. DISTAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
M. PROXIMAL CONVOLUTED TUBULE
N. GLOMERULUS
O. GLOMERULAR CAPSULE

18

SITE OF FILTRATION FORMATION

GLOMERULUS

19

PRIMARY SITE OF TUBULAR REABSORPTION

PROXIMAL CONVULATED TUBULE

20

STRUCTURE THAT CONVEYS THE PROCESSED FILTRATE (URINE) TO THE RENAL PELVIS

DISTAL CONVULATED TUBULE

21

BLOOD SUPPLY THAT DIRECTLY RECIEVES SUBSTANCES FROM THE TUBULAR CELLS

PERITUBULAR CAPILLARIES

22

ITS INNER (VISCERAL) MEMBRANE FORMS PART OF THE FILTRATION MEMBRANE

GLOMERULAR CAPSULE

23

EXPLAIN WHY THE GLOMERULUS IS SUCH A HIGH-PRESSURE CAPILLARY BED.

1. THE BED IS FED AND DRAINED BY ARTERIOLES (HIGH RESISTANT VESSELS)
2. THE AFFERENT ARTERIOLE (FEEDER) IS LARGER IN DIAMETER THAN THE EFFERENT ARTERIOLE (DRAINING)

24

HOW DOES ITS HIGH-PRESSURE CONDITION AID ITS FUNCTION OF FILTRATE FORMATION?

THE HIGHER THE CAPILLARY PRESSURE, THE MORE FILTRATE WILL BE FORMED

25

WHAT STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION OF CERTAIN TUBULE CELLS ENHANCES THEIR ABILITY TO REABSORB SUBSTANCES FROM THE FILTRATE?

THEIR POSSESSION OF DENSE MICROVILLI, ESPECIALLY THE PCT CELLS.

26

EXPLAIN THE MECHANISM OF TUBULAR SECRETION, AND EXPLAIN ITS IMPORTANCE IN THE URINE-FORMATION PROCESS.

1. BLOOD PLASMA CONTAINS RED-WHITE BLOOD CELLS, BLOOD PROTEINS, GLUCOSE, WATER, NITROGENIOUS WASTE AND SALTS.
2. GLOMERULAR FILTRATE CONTAINS EVERYTHING BLOOD PLASMA DOES WITHOUT MOST OF THE BLOOD PROTEINS.

27

TRACE A DROP OF BLOOD FROM THE TIME IT ENTERS THE KIDNEY VIA THE RENAL ARTERY UNTIL IT LEAVES THE KIDNEY THROUGH THE RENAL VEIN.

RENAL ARTERY -> SEGMENTAL ARTERY -> INTERLOBULAR ARTERY -> ARCUATE ARTERY -> CORTICAL RADIATE ARTERY -> AFFERENT ARTERIOLES -> GLOMERULUS -> EFFERENT ARTERIOLES -> PERITUBULAR CAPILLARY BED AND VASA RECTA -> ARCUATE VEIN -> INTERLOBULAR VEIN -> RENAL VEIN

28
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29

DEFINE JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS

REGION OF NEPHRON THAT PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN FORMING CONCENTRATED URINE. CONSISTS OF JUXTAGLOMERULAR AND MACULA DENSA CELLS OF THE DCT.

30

TRACE THE ANATOMICAL PATHWAY OF A MOLECULE OF CREATININE (METABOLIC WASTE) FROM THE GLOMERULAR CAPSULE TO THE URETHRA. NOTE EACH MICROSCOPE AND/OR GROSS STRUCTURE IT PASSES THROUGH IN ITS TRAVELS. NAME THE SUBDIVISIONS OF THE RENAL TUBULE.

GLOMERULAR CAPSULE -> PROXIMAL CONVULATED TUBULE -> LOOP OF HENLE -> DISTAL CONVULATED TUBULE -> COLLECTING TUBULE -> PAPILLARY DUCT -> MINOR CALYX -> RENAL PELVIS -> URETER -> BLADDER -> URETHRA

31

WHAT IS IMPORTANT FUNCTIONALLY ABOUT THE SPECIALIZED EPITHELIUM (TRANSITIONAL EPITHELIUM) IN THE BLADDER?

THEY HAVE ABILITY TO SLIDE OVER ONE ANOTHER, THUS DECREASING THE THICKNESS OF THE MUCOSAL LAYER AS THE BLADDER FILLS & STRETCHES TO ACCOMMODATE THE INCREASED URINE VOLUME.


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