APUSH Quarter 3 Chapter 24+

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1

Seth Dryer
Chapter 24

Welfare Capitalism

Exemplifying techniques utlized by some bosses, this philosophy tried to improve working conditions, and in turn, lead to a Ex: Henry Ford shortened workweek, raised wages, paid vacations, US Steel improved safety and sanitation

Sig: Reason for decrease in union ship because many felt no need for them.

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"Pink Collar" Jobs

low paying service jobs pushed more towards women, in which unions refused to organize in them. They were comparable to minority groups pay and consisted of jobs such as clerks, teachers, etc.

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A. Phillip Randolph

Important civil rights and union activist in the 20s. Among the few union activists that still existed during the era.

Sig: leader of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters.

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Motion Picture Association

led by Will Hays. Was a company that managed cinema, particularly movies that came out during the 20s and following years in history.

Sig: Exemplifies the new media control of leisurely time that came about in the 20s.

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National Broadcasting Company (NBC)

Established in 1924. Company formed to establish a permanent network of stations to distribute daily programs to audiences across the USA in their leisurely times.

Sig: Along with CBS took control of the Home Radio throughout the whole nation.

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Margaret Sanger

Organized a birth-control movement which openly championed the use of contraceptives in the 1920's.

Sig: Her efforts helped bring to pass a bigger use and want for birth control in the USA.

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Emma Goldman

An outspoken radical who was deported after being arrested on charges of being an anarchist, socialist, and someone who started much labor unrest among workers.

Sig: Represents the Nativism, and Red Scare that existed during the Era.

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Flappers

Women influenced by movie actresses, they shocked elders of the time by wearing dresses at their knees, cutting their hair short, smoking cigarettes, driving cars, taking jobs in offices, etc. (acting like men....however, were still very dependent on the patriarchal society)

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Sheppard-Towner Act of 1921

Provided federally financed instruction in maternal and infant healthcare for women in the 20th Century stateside. Was stopped in 1929 when many women's activists and the American Medical Association spoke out against it.

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Seth Dryer
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Charles Lindbergh

An American aviator, engineer, and Pulitzer Prize winner. He was famous for flying solo across the Atlantic, paving the way for future aviational development in the USA, particularly important in the second world war.

Sig: Represented the number of famous people in the 20s and also the American image of a "Self made Man" Who had little education and made something of himself through hard work alone.

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The Lost Generation

Group of American writers that rebelled against America's lack of cosmopolitan culture in the early 20th century. Many moved to cultural centers such as London in Paris in search for literary freedom. Prominent writers included T.S. Eliot, Ezra Pound, and Ernest Hemingway among others.

Sig: Represent the criticism of the nation seen through literature in the Era.

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Sinclair Lewis

American novelist who satirized middle-class America in his 22 works, including Babbitt (1922) and Elmer Gantry (1927).

Sig: First person to receive the Nobel Prize of Literature.

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Seth Dryer
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F. Scott Fitzgerald

Novelist and chronicler of the jazz age. his wife, zelda and he were the "couple" of the decade but hit bottom during the depression. his noval THE GREAT GATSBY is considered a masterpiece about a gangster's pursuit of an unattainable rich girl.

Sig: Exemplifies the large influx of Jazz in the time period and the Lost Generation of writers.

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John Dewey

American philosopher, psychologist, and educational reformer, whose thoughts and ideas have been greatly influential in the United States and around the world. He, along with Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, is recognized as one of the founders of the philosophical school of Pragmatism.

Sig: Started and had a great influence thereof on the theory of pragmatism.

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Harlem Renaissance
------Langston Hughes

A flowering of African American culture in the 1920s in the area of Harlem; instilled interest in African American culture and pride in being an African American. Also contributes significantly to the Jazz in the era. Signifigant leader in poet and civil rights activist Langston Hughes.

Sig: Beginning to see influx of important and notable african americans to the culture in the USA.

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Alain Locke

African American writer, philosopher, educator, and patron of the arts. In a popular publication, The Black 100, Alain Locke ranks as the 36th most influential African American ever, past or present.

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Prohibition

The period from 1920 to 1933 when the sale of alcoholic beverages was prohibited in the United States by a constitutional amendment. Supported strongly by women, in particular was the Women's Temperance Union.

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Al Capone

A mob king in Chicago who controlled a large network of speakeasies with enormous profits. His illegal activities convey the failure of prohibition in the twenties and the problems with gangs.

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Nativism

Groups of Anti-Foreigners of the 1920s that expressed hate and even harmed immigrants. Influenced the quotas that would come in the later 20s. Also had members that were KKK.

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KKK

An organization of white supremacists that used lynchings, beatings, and threats to control the black population in the United States and during the 20s expressed large amounts of nativism. Expressed beliefs in respect for the American woman and things purely American [anti-immigrant]. Strongest periods were after the Civil War, a resurfacing in 1915 [on Stone Mountain, GA.] continuing through the 1920s, and another upsurge in the 1990s.

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National Origins Act of 1924

Act which restricted immigration from any one nation to two percent of the number of people already in the U.S. of that national origin in 1890.

Sig:Severely restricted immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, and excluded Asians entirely

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Fundamentalism

Literal interpretation and strict adherence to basic principles of a religion (or a religious branch, denomination, or sect).

Sig: Strong religious revivals through the 20th Century.

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Scopes Trail

Trail Regarding scopes, a Tennessee school teacher, accused of teaching evolution to his students.

Sig: Evolution becomes a highly argued topic in regards to being taught in school.

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Election of 1924

Election between Republican Calvin Coolidge, Democrat John Davis and Progressive Robert LaFolette; Coolidge won but LaFolette received 5 million votes.

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Election of 1928

Alfred Smith (Dem) vs. Herbert Hoover (Rep), Hoover wins pretty easily. Keeping republicans in the presidency through the whole period of the 20s.

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Teapot Dome Scandal

Scandals under the presidency of Warren Harding. Involved bribery with oil in Wyoming. Involved members of his Cabinet Daughtery and Falls.

Sig: Even though Harding died before being assumed as part of these scandalous acts never before seen since the Grant administration, this marks what many see as his time in office.

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Black Tuesday

Stock Market issue in the USA on October 29 the bottom fell out, millions of investors ordered their brokers to sell, no buyers to be found, prices kept going down, hit bottom at 41 three years later, 1/9 value

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Dust Bowl

The area of the great plains, so named after the incident early in 1930 where a huge drought was in the area.

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Okies

A stream of 300000 people who migrated from Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, and Arkansas. They were mostly tenant and sharecropper families who were forced off their land during the Dust Bowl.

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Shantytown

Towns that erupted because of the drought of the Dust Bowl and because of the disappearance of the Okies.

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Scottsboro Case

A case that arose in Scottsboro, Alabama during the 1930s, when nine black youths, ranging in age from twelve to nineteen, were accused of raping two white women, Victoria Price and Ruby Bates, one of whom would later recant.

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National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

Established on Lincoln's birthday by W.E.B Du Bois with the Niagara Movement in 1908, this organization's mission was no less than to abolish all forms of segregation and to increase educational opportunities for African-American children.

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Japanese American Citizen League

Japenese-American businessmen and professionals formed this league in 1930. by the 1940s it had 6,000 members. In strong opposition to laws that restricted Japanese immigrants in the USA.

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Dale Carnegie

Writer and mentor of the day. He wrote a best selling self help book called "How to win friends and influence people" and discussed in it Individual initiative and it's importance.

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Soap Operas

Series of in depth lengthy and dramatic cinema, were known as this because their sponsors were almost always companies making household goods targeted at women.

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Orson Wells

This man was an actor-director who created a memorable event on Halloween night, 1938, when he broadcast a radio play about aliens landing in central New Jersey and setting off toward New York armed with terrible weapons. The play took the form of a news broadcast, and it created panic among millions of people who believed for a while that the events it described were real.

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Marx Brothers

These men produced films designed to divert audiences from their troubles and, often, indulge their fantasies about quick and easy wealth. Strongly propagandized Socialism.

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Frank Capra

This man was an Italian-born director who had a deep and somewhat romanticized love for his adopted country, and he translated that love into a vaguely populistic admiration for ordinary people. He contrasted the decency of small-town American and the common man with what he considered the grasping opportunism of the ciry and the greedy capitalist marketplace. He made Mr. Deeds Goes to Town in 1936 and Mr. Smith Goes to Washington in 1939.

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Walt Disney

United States film maker who pioneered animated cartoons and created such characters as Mickey Mouse and Donald Duck.

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Life Magazine

This was a magazine that was first published in 1936. It had the readership of any publication in the United States (with the exception of the Reader's Digest). It devoted some attention to politics and to the economic conditions of the Depression, but it was best known for stunning photographs of sporting and theater events, natural landscapes, and impressive public projects. One of its most popular features was "Life Goes to a Party," which took the chatty social columns of daily newspapers and turned them into glossy photographic glimpses of the rich and famous.

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American Communist Party

This group was always under the close and rigid supervision of the Soviet Union. Most members obediently followed the "party line" (although Communists acted independently in many areas for which there was no party line). The subordination of the party leadership to the Soviet Union was most clearly demonstrated in 1939, when Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Nazi Germany.

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Southern Tenant Farmers Union

This was supported by the Socialist Party of America and it was organized by a young socialist, H.L. Mitchell. It attempted to create a biracial coalition of sharecroppers, tenant farmers, and others to demand economic reform.

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John Steinbeck

Writer of "Grapes of Wrath" in 1939. Which became a cinematic adaptation by John Ford.He also wrote "Of Mice and Men"

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Agricultural marketing Act of 1929

Hoover proposed this in April 1929, which established the first major government program to help farmers maintain prices. A federally sponsored Farm Board would make loans to national marketing cooperatives or establish corporations to buy surpluses and thus raise prices.

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Reconstruction Finance corporation

This was a government agency that was designed to provide federal loans to troubled banks, railroads, and other businesses. In 1932, it had a budget of $1.5 billion for public works alone.

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Farmers' Holiday Association

This endorsed the withholding of farm products from the market- in effect a farmer's strike. This began in August in western Iowa.

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Election of 1932

Marking the worst year of the depression this election was between the renominated Hoover and Franklin D. Roosevelt who pledged his "New Deal" program.

Sig: Roosevelt would win and it would start the New Deal Era of American History.

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Emergency Banking Act

FDR sent this to Congress three days after the Bank Holiday. This was a generally conservative bill designed primarily to protect the larger banks from being dragged down by the weakness of smaller ones. The bill provided for Treasury Department inspection of all banks before they would e allowed to reopen, for federal assistance to some troubled institutions, and for a thorough reorganization of those banks in the greatest difficulty. Congress passed this within a few hours. It helped dispel the panic.

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21st century amendment

Finally, the 18th amendment of prohibition was removed by the creation of this amendment in 1933.

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National Industrial Recovery Act

Overarching bill that set out to recover the nations industry after the great depression and formed many new administrations along with it including the PWA. (Public Works Administration)

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National Recovery Administration (NRA)

Led by Hugh S. Johnson was a government agency that managed recovery in the USA through managing taxation through codes created by them.

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American Liberty League (ALL)

Organization of wealthy Republicans and conservative Democrats whose attacks on the New Deal caused Roosevelt to denounce them as "economic royalists" in the campaign of 1936.

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Dr. Francis E. Townsend

Attracted the trusting support of perhaps 5 million "senior citizens" with his fantastic plan of each senior receiving $200 month, provided that all of it would be spent within the month. This was a stupid idea...especially considering the economics that wouldn't have been assisted with its moving forward.

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Father Charles E. Coughlin

The "microphone messiah" of Michigan whose mass radio appeals turned anti-New Deal and anti-semitic to support FDR!

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Huey Long

Also known as the "Kingfish", he was a Louisiana senator and popular mass agitator who promised to make "every man a king" at the expense of the wealthy.

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Second New Deal

This second attempt to fix the nation occurred in 1935+ and was in response to critics of the 1st New Deal (particularly Huey Long and the more radical critics); contained more relief programs and greater protection for labor unions (this was radical for the 1920s anti-union atmosphere); the most extensive of the reform programs that emerged was social security.

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National Labor Relations Board

NLRA (ref) 1935; created National Labor Relations Board- could force companies to collectively bargain with unions, companies could not discriminate against unions or force workers not to join unions;

Sig: It protected the growth of unions- the "magna carta" of labor; wins over labor and cements them in the new deal voting coalition.

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Industrial Unions

Were made nearly obsolete during the 20s and continued to almost be disappeared in the later years.

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Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO)

Formed by John Lewis (Leader of the United mine Workers) this organization sought to organize workers on their work ethic and who were often uneducated as opposed to organizing workers on a basis of their skills solely.

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United Auto Workers

Important revolutionaries for industrial unions they practice the tactic of sit down strikes rather than leaving or not showing up to work.

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Sit Down Strikes

Strikes that involved halting production and staying in the business rather than other forms of rebellion.

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Memorial Day Massacre

Labor strike 1937 at the Republic Steel Co. of South Chicago that ended violently when the small steel companies, unlike US Steel, struck back and strikees got shot.

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Unemployment Insurance

Created following the Social Security Act this gave people funding to help find jobs whilst not having them.

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Court-Packing Plan

Roosevelt's proposal in 1937 to "reform" the Supreme Court by appointing an additional justice for every justice over age of 70; following the Court's actions in striking down major New Deal laws, FDR came to believe that some justices were out of touch with the nation's needs. Congress believed Roosevelt's proposal endangered the Court's independence and said no.

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Recession of 1937

Temporary reversal of the pre-war 1933 to 1941 economic recovery, which occurred in 1937-38. It was part of the Great Depression in the United States, and had serious political results, and helped strengthen the new Conservative Coalition led by Senators Robert A. Taft and Richard B. Russell. Economic historians have not agreed on the causes, but many of the causes show that because the New Deal involved spending money from the Federal budget, President Roosevelt had to end New Deal spending, and thus programs, as a result. Depression suddenly intensifies

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Black Cabinet

First known as the Federal Council of Negro Affairs, an informal group of African American public policy advisors to United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was supported by the first lady Eleanor Roosevelt. By mid-1935 there were 45 African Americans working in federal executive departments and New Deal agencies

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Indian Reorganization Act

passed 1934; encouraged tribes to preserve culture and traditions; met with Indian disapproval and brought more Indians to be assimilated or pushed into reservations.

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Francis Perkins

The U.S. Secretary of Labor from 1933 to 1945.

Sig: The first woman ever appointed to the US Cabinet

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Eleanor Roosevelt

Active first lady with FDR, she was in strong support of the poor, blacks, and women. She was a very empowered women who influenced many of the presidents big decisions.


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