Exercise 36: Anatomy of the Respiratory System

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1

TWO PAIRS OF VOCAL FOLDS ARE FOUND IN THE LARYNX. WHICH PAIR ARE THE TRUE VOCAL CORDS (SUPERIOR OF INFERIOR)?

INFERIOR VOCAL FOLDS (TRUE VOCAL FOLDS)

2

FORMS THE ADAMS APPLE

THYROID CARTILAGE

3

A "LID" FOR THE LARYNX

EPIGLOTTIS

4

SHAPED LIKE A SIGNET RING

CRICOID CARTILAGE

5

VOCAL CORD ATTACHMENT

ARYTENOID CARTILAGES

6

WHAT IS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE FACT THAT THE HUMAN TRACHEA IS REINFORCED WITH CARTILAGINOUS RINGS?

REINFORCE THE TRACHEA WALLS TO MAINTAIN ITS OPEN PASSAGEWAY REGUARDLESS OF THE PRESSURE CHANGES THAT OCCUR DURING BREATHING

7

OF THE FACT THAT THE RINGS ARE INCOMPLETE POSTERIORLY?

ALLOWS ESOPHAGUS TO EXPAND ANTERIORLY WHEN A LARGE FOOD BOLUS IS SWALLOWED

8

WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE PLEURAL MEMBRANES?

PRODUCE LUBRICATING SEROUS FLUID THAT CAUSES THEM TO ADHERE CLOSELY TO ONE ANOTHER, HOLDING THE LUNGS TO THE THORACIC WALL AND ALLOWING THEM TO MOVE EASILY AGAINST ONE ANOTHER DURING THE MOVEMENTS OF BREATHING

9

NAME TWO FUNCTIONS OF THE NASAL CAVITY MUCOSA

IT WARMS, MOISTENS - AND - FILTERS THE AIR THAT PASSES THROUGH THE NASAL CAVITY

10

PRIMARY BRONCHI:

WHICH IS LONGER?

LEFT MAIN BRONCHUS

11

PRIMARY BRONCHI:

LARGER IN DIAMETER?

RIGHT MAIN BRONCHUS

12

PRIMARY BRONCHI:

MORE HORIZONTAL?

LEFT MAIN BRONCHUS

13

PRIMARY BRONCHI:

WHICH MORE COMMONLY TRAPS A FOREIGN OBJECT THAT HAS ENTERED THE RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS?

RIGHT MAIN BRONCHUS

14

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15

TRACE A MOLECULE OF OXYGEN FROM THE NOSTRILS TO THE PULMONARY CAPILLARIES OF THE LUNGS

NOSTRILS -> NASAL CAVITY -> PHARYNX -> LARYNX -> TRACHEA -? PRIMARY BRONCHUS -> SECONDARY BRONCHI -> TERTIARY BRONCHI -> BRONCHIOLE -> RESPIRATORY BRONCHIOLE -> ALVEOLAR DUCT ->ALVEOLAR SAC -> ALVEOLAR/CAPILLARY WALLS -> PULMONARY BLOOD

16

CONNECTS THE LARYNX TO THE PRIMARY BRONCHI

TRACHEA

17

SITE OF TONSILS

PHARYNX

18

FOOD PASSAGEWAY POSTERIOR TO THE TRACHEA

ESOPHAGUS

19

COVERS THE GLOTTIS DURING SWALLOWING OF FOOD

EPIGLOTTIS

20

CONTAINS THE VOCAL CORDS

LARYNX

21

NERVE THAT ACTIVATES THE DIAPHRAGM DURING INSPIRATION

PHRENIC NERVE

22

PLEURAL LAYER LINING THE WALLS OF THE THORAX

PARIETAL PLEURA

23

SITE FROM WHICH OXYGEN ENTERS THE PULMONARY BLOOD

ALVEOLUS

24

CONNECTS THE MIDDLE EAR TO THE NASOPHARYNX

PHARYNGOTYMPANIC TUBE

25

OPENING BETWEEN THE VOCAL FOLDS

GLOTTIS

26

INCREASES AIR TURBULENCE IN THE NASAL CAVITY

CONCHAE

27

SEPARATES THE ORAL CAVITY FROM THE NASAL CAVITY

PALATE

28

WHAT PORTIONS OF THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM ARE REFERRED TO AS ANATOMICAL DEAD SPACE? WHY?

ALL RESPIRATORY PASSAGEWAYS (CONDUCTING ZONE STRUCTURES), BESIDES RESPIRATORY ZONE STRUCTURES, FROM NASAL CAVITY TO TERMINAL BRONCHIOLES.
WHY = THEY HAVE NO EXCHANGE FUNCTION

29

DEFINE EXTERNAL RESPIRATION

THE GAS EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE BLOOD AND THE AIR-FILLED CHAMBERS OF THE LUNGS (OXYGEN LOADING/CARBON DIOXIDE UNLOADING)

30

DEFINE INTERNAL RESPIRATION

EXCHANGE OF GASES BETWEEN SYSTEMIC BLOOD AND TISSUE CELLS (OXYGEN UNLOADING AND CARBON DIOXIDE LOADING)

31

DEFINE CELLULAR RESPIRATION

BODY CELLS REQUIRE AN ABUNDANT AND CONTINUOUS SUPPLY OF OXYGEN. AS THE CELLS USE OXYGEN, THEY RELEASE CARBON DIOXIDE, A WASTE PRODUCT THAT THE BODY MUST GET RID OF. THESE OXYGEN USING CELLULAR PROCESSES ARE REFERRED TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION (CELLULAR METABOLISM)

32

SHEEP PLUCK:

DOES THE LUNG INFLATE PART BY PART OR AS A WHOLE, LIKE A BALLOON?

PART BY PART

33

SHEEP PLUCK:

WHAT HAPPENED WHEN THE PRESSURE WAS RELEASED

IT DEFLATES

34

WHAT TYPE OF TISSUE ENSURES THIS PHENOMENON?

ELASTIC CONNECTIVE TISSUE

35

SLIDES OF TRACHEA AND LUNG TISSUE:

WHAT STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ALVEOLI MAKE THEM AN IDEAL SITE FOR THE DIFFUSION OF GASES?

VERY THIN WALLS, LARGE SURFACE AREA

36

WHY DOES OXYGEN MOVE FROM THE ALVEOLI INTO THE PULMONARY CAPILLARY BLOOD?

OXYGEN DIFFUSES FROM THE ALVEOLI INTO THE BLOOD DUE TO HIGHER PO2 (PARTIAL PRESSURE OF OXYGEN) LEVELS IN THE ALVEOLI THAN IN THE BLOOD.


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