Chapter 3 Developmental Psychology
Period of the Zygote
From fertilization until implantation of the blastocyst in the uterine lining. During this time, structures that will support prenatal growth begin to form, including the placenta and the umbilical cord.
Period of the Embryo
2-8 weeks. The foundations for all body structures are laid down. In the first week of this period, the neural tube forms, and the nervous system starts to develop. Other organs follow and grow rapidly. At the end of this phase, the embryo responds to touch and can move.
Period of the Fetus
Until the end of pregnancy, dramatic increase in body size and the completion of physical structures. At the end of the second trimester, most of the brain's neurons are in place. At the beginning of the third trimester, between 22 and 26 weeks, the fetus reaches the age of viability. The brain continues to develop rapidly, and new sensory and behavioral capacities emerge.
Environmental agents that cause damage during the prenatal period. Their impact varies with the amount and length of exposure, the genetic makeup of mother and fetus, the presence or absence of other harmful agents, and the age of the organism at time of exposure.
When is the developing organism the most vulnerable to teratogens?
What is the most widely used and potent teratogen?
When the blastocyst burrows deep into the lining
Helps keep the temp of the prenatal world constant and provides a cushion against any jolts caused by the woman's movements
Tiny hairlike villi, or blood vessels, emerge, surrounds the amnion
Permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and waste products to be carried away.
A tiny stalk and eventually grows to a lenth of one to three feet. One large vein that delivers blood loaded with nutrients and two arteries that remove waste products
The ectoderm folds over to form the ______ which will become the spinal cord and brain
At the end of the 3rd month the ____ trimester is complete.
A white cheeselike substance that protects skin from chapping during the long months spent bathing in the amniotic fluid.
white, downy hair that appears over the body, helping the vernix stick to the skin
The point at which the fetus can first survive, occurs sometimes between 22 and 26 weeks
age of viability
A range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder
Distinguished by a slow physical growth, a pattern of three facial abnormalities (short eyelid openings, a thin upper lip, a smooth or flatneded philtrum, or indentation running from the bottom of the nose to the center of the lip.
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Characterized by two of the three facial abnormalities, mothers drank in smaller quantities
Partial fetal alcohol syndrome
At least three areas of mental functioning are impaired, despite typical physical growth and absence of facial abnormalities.
Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder
When the mother is rh negative and the father is rh positive
Rh factor incompatibility
3 stages of childbirth?
dilation and effacement of the cervix
delivery of the baby
delivery of the placenta
To assess the newborn's physical condition quickly, doctors use what scale?
Examples of things in the apgar scale?
heart rate, respiratory effort, reflex irritability, muscle tone, and color
The number of deaths in the first year of life per 1000 live births-is an index used around the world to assess the overall health of a nation's children
An inborn, automatic response to a particular form of stimulation
reflex: eye blink, rooting, sucking, moro, palmar grasp, tonic neck, stepping, babinski
Degrees of sleep and wakefulness
state of arousal
Brain wave activity is remarkably similar to that of the waking state. The eyes dart beneath the lids; heart rate blood pressure, and breathing are uneven; and slight body movements occur.
Rapid-eye-movement; irregular sleep
during regular sleep, the body is almost motionless, and heart rate, breathing and brain-wave activity are slow and even
The unexpected death, usually during the night, of an infant under 1 year of age that remains unexplained after thorough investigation
Sudden infant death syndrome`
Fineness or discrimination is limited for the eyes
Evaluates the newborn's reflexes, muscle tone, state changes, responsiveness to physical and social stimuli, and other reactions
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
What happens during the 3rd stage of labor?
The placenta separates from the wall of the uterus and is delivered.
The sucking reflex permits feeding. Which of the following is consistent with the proximodistal trend of body growth?
During childhood, the arms and legs continue
to grow somewhat ahead of the hands and feet.
The _______ is associated with conception; it secretes hormones that prepare the lining of the the uterus to receive the fertilized ovum
What is the generalized outcome of the dose of the teratogen?
The higher the dose over a larger period of time, increases the amount of birth defects.
What is the proposed role of the sense of smell in the lives of organisms?
Role in feeding and protecting the young from predators by helping mothers and babies identify each other.
Explain what is meant by the unique vocal signiture of the infant?
A unique signature cry different with every baby that helps the mother identify their baby.
The newbornâs state of arousal, what is one possible outcome on mental development for babies who spend more time being alert?
The newbornâs state of arousal, what is one possible outcome on mental development for babies who spend more time being alert?
During the prenatal period, the head devlops more rapidly than the lower part of the body.
Growth preceeds for the head, literally, form "near to far"--from the center of the body outward.
Nerve cells that store and transmit infromation
Tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
Neurons send messages to one another by releasing chemicals called ______, which cross the synapse.
Neurons that are seldom stimulated soon lose their synapses, in a process called ___that returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development
If few neurons are produced after the prenatal period, what causes the dramatic increase in brain size during the first two years?
About half the brain's volume consists of glial cells, which are responsible for myelination, the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer.
Surrounds the rest of the brain, resembling half of a shelled walnut. It is the largest, most complex brain structure-accounting for 85 percent of the brain's weight and containing the greatest number of neurons and synapses.
Researchers study the timing of the brain lateralization to learn more about _________.
The young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends on ordinary experiences--opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment.
experience-expectant brain growth
Consists of additional growth and refinement of est. brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that occur throughout our lives, varying widely across individuals and cultures.
experience-dependent brain growth
A wasted condition of the body caused by diet low in all essential nutrients. It usually appears in the first year of life when a baby's mother is too malnourished to produce enough breast milk and bottle-feeding is also inadequate.
Caused by an unbalanced diet very low in protein.
A growth disorder resulting from lack of parental love, is usually present by 18 months of age. Infants who have it show all the signs of marasmus.
Nonorganic failure to thrive
When a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
Before learning takes place, an unconditioned stimulus must consistently produce a reflexive, or unconditioned _____
If learning has occurred, the neutral stimulus by itself produces a response similar to the reflexive response. The neutral stimulus is then called a ______, and the response it elicits is called a conditioned response.
Infants act, or operate, on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again.
A stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response
Removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response
Refers to a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
A change in environment that causes responsiveness to return to a high level, an increase called ________.
By copying the behavior of another person
specialized cells in motor areas of the cerebral cortex in primates. They fire identically when a primate hears or sees an action and when it carries out that action on its own
Mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. When motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment.
Dynamic systems theory of motor development
Milestones of reaching
Prereaching: Newborn, Reaching with ulnar grasp: 3-4 months, Transfer object form hand to hand: 4-5 months, Pincer grasp: 9 months
Spans the first 2 years of life for Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory
Specific psychological structures -organized ways of making sense of experience
Building schemes through direct interaction with the environment
During ________ we use our current schemes to interpret the external world.
We create new schemes or adjust old ones after noticing that our current ways of thinking do not capture the environment completely
A process that takes place internally, apart from direct contact with the environment. Once children form new schemes, they rearrange them, linking them with other schemes to create a strongly interconnected cognitive system.
It involves stumbling onto a new experience caused by the baby's own motor activity. As the infant tries to repeat the event again, a sensorimotor response that first occurred by chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme.
Coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems.
intentional or goal-directed behavior
The understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight
The ability to remember and copy the behavior of models who are not present
A child acts out everyday and imaginary activities
Researchers may habituate babies to a physical event to familiarize them with a situation in which their knowledge will be tested.
violation of expectation method
Babies are born with a set of innate knowledge systems, or core domains of thought. Each of these prewired understandings permits a ready grasp of new, related information and therefore supports early, rapid development.
core knowledge perspective
Used to operate on and transform it, increasing the chances that we will retain information, use it efficiently, and think flexibly, adapting the information to changing circumstances.
Where sights and sounds are represented directly and stored briefly
When we actively apply mental strategies as we "work" on a limited amt. of information
working, short-term memory
Directs the flow of information. It decides what to attend to, coordinates incoming info with info already in the system, and selects, applies, and monitors strategies.
Our permanent knowledge base
Noticing when a stimulus is identical or similar to one previously experienced it.
More challenging because it involves remembering something not present
That most of us can not retrieve events that happened to us before age 3?
We can recall many personally meaningful one-time events from both the recent and the distant past: the day a sibling was born, a birthday party, or a move to a new house-recollection know as ____________.
A range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled parents
zone of proximal development
Indicates the extent to which the raw score (number of items passed) deviates from the typical performance of same-age individuals
Giving the test to a large, representative sample and using the results as the standard for interpreting scores
Most scores cluster around the mean, or average, with progressively fewer falling toward the extremes
Infant scores do not tap the same dimensions of intelligence measured at older ages, they are conservatively labeled ___________ rather than IQs.
A checklist for gathering information about the quality of children's home lives through observation and parental interview
Home observation for measurement of the environment (HOME)
Standards devised by the U.S. National Association for the Education of Young Children, specify program characteristics that serve young children's developmental and individual needs, based on both current research and expert consensus.
Developmentally appropriate practice
A measure of bone development
What is used to examine brain-wave patterns for stability and organization?
Detect the general location of brain-wave activity in the cerebral cortex
Shows three dimensional pictures of the entire brain, detecting blood flow and oxygen metabolism magnetically, yielding a colorful, moving picture of parts of the brain used to process information or perform an activity
A Neuroimaging technique that works well in infancy and early childhood
Uncertain access to enough food for a healthy, active life
Control over actions that help infants get around in the environment, such as crawling, standing, and walking.
Smaller movements, such as reading and grasping
Dynamic systems theory of motor development joint factors
1. central nervous system development 2. The body's movement capacities 3. the goals the child has in mind 4. environmental supports for the skill
A clumsy motion in which the fingers close against palm
Infants use the thumb and index finger opposably in a well-coordinated _______.