Heart Sounds

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S1 sound is due to what valves closing?

Atrioventricular valves (AV valves)


S2 sound is due to what valves closing?

Semi-lunar valvess


How is the AV valves closed?

By ventricular contraction


How is the semi-lunar valves closed?

By ventricular relaxation


An abnormal heart sound



What is another term for back flow in the heart?



Atrial regurgitation can be heard after which sound, S1 or S2?

S1 - atrial regurgitation occurs when an AV valve does not close correctly


Ventricular regurgitation can be heard after which sound, S1 or S2?

S2 - ventricular regurgitation occurs when the semi-lunar valve does not close correctly


What is pulse?

The alternating expansion and recoil within an artery due to ventricular contraction and relaxation


Name three pulse points

Radial artery
Brachial artery
carotid artery


Define auscultation

Listening to the body sounds with a stethoscope


The technical term for a blood pressure cuff



Normal blood flow is referred as ___________.

Lamineer Flow


The sounds heard when taking someone's blood pressure

KorotKoff Sounds


Arteriosclerosis will increase systolic or diastolic pressure



Atherosclerosis will increase systolic or diastolic pressure



Define arteriosclerosis

hardening of an artery


Define atherosclerosis

plaque build up inside the artery


Define myocardial infarction

death of cardiac muscle due to lack of oxygen


Stroke - lack of oxygen and death of nerve cells

Cortical Infarction or Cerebral Infarction


List 3 deflections found on an ECG

P wave
QRS complex
T wave


List 3 electrical events found on an ECG

Atrial depolarization - (p-wave)
Ventricular depolarization - (QRS complex)
Ventricular repolarization - (t-wave)

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