Muscle Tissue Questions

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1

A single somatic motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it stimulates is known as a _________ .

motor unit

2

The wasting away of muscle due to lack of use is known as [a] while the replacement of skeletal muscle fibers with scar tissue is known as [b].

a. muscular atrophy
b. fibrosis

3

The synaptic end bulbs of somatic motor neurons contain synaptic vesicles filled with the neurotransmitter _________ .

acetycholine

4

The ability of muscle cells to respond to stimuli and produce electrical signals is known as excitability.

true

5

The sequence of events resulting in skeletal muscle contraction are (a) generation of a nerve impulse, (b) release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, (c) generation of a muscle action potential, (d) release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, (e) calcium ion binding to the troponin-tropomyosin complex, (f) power stroke with actin and myosin binding and release.

true

6

In muscle physiology, the latent period refers to

a brief delay that occurs between application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction

7

Which of the following muscle proteins and their descriptions are mismatched?

titin: regulatory protein that holds troponin in place

8

During muscle contraction all of the following occur except

the thick filaments slide inward toward the M line

9

Which of the following is not true concerning muscle fiber length–tension relationships?

If sarcomeres shorten, the tension in them increases

10

Which of the following are sources of ATP for muscle contraction? (1) creatine phosphate, (2) glycolysis, (3) anaerobic cellular respiration, (4) aerobic cellular respiration, (5) acetylcholine

1, 2, 3, and 4

11

What would happen if ATP were suddenly unavailable after the sarcomere had begun to shorten?

The myosin heads would be unable to detach from actin.

12

sheath of areolar connective tissue that wraps around individual skeletal muscle fibers

endomysium

13

dense irregular connective tissue that separates a muscle into groups of individual muscle fibers

perimysium

14

bundles of muscle fibers

fascia

15

the outermost connective tissue layer that encircles an entire skeletal muscle

tendon (synovial) sheath

16

dense irregular connective tissue that lines the body wall and limbs and holds functional muscle units together

fascia

17

a cord of dense regular connective tissue that attaches muscle to the periosteum of bone

tendon

18

elongated muscle cell

muscle fiber

19

areolar and adipose connective tissue that separates muscle from skin

subcutaneous layer

20

connective tissue elements extended as a broad, flat layer

aponeurosis

21

a two-layer tube of fibrous connective tissue enclosing certain tendons

tendon (synovial) sheath

22

synapse between a motor neuron and a muscle fiber

neuromuscular junction

23

invaginations of the sarcolemma from the surface toward the center of the muscle fiber

transverse (T) tubules

24

myoblasts that persist in mature skeletal muscle

satellite cells

25

plasma membrane of a muscle fiber

sarcolemma

26

oxygen-binding protein found only in muscle fibers

myoglobin

27

Ca2+-storing tubular system similar to smooth endoplasmic reticulum

sarcoplasmic reticulum

28

the contracting unit of a skeletal muscle fiber

sarcomere

29

middle area in the sarcomere where thick and thin filaments are found

A band

30

area in the sarcomere where only thin filaments are present but thick filaments are not

I band

31

separates the sarcomeres from each other

Z disc

32

area of only thick filaments

H zone

33

cytoplasm of a muscle fiber

sacroplasm

34

composed of supporting proteins holding thick filaments together at the H zone

M line

35

has fibers joined by intercalated discs

cardiac

36

thick and thin filaments are not arranged as orderly sarcomeres

smooth

37

uses satellite cells to repair damaged muscle fibers

skeletal

38

striated

skeletal and cardiac

39

contraction begins slowly but lasts for long periods

smooth

40

has an extended contraction due to prolonged calcium delivery from both the sarcoplasmic reticulum and the interstitial fluid

cardiac

41

does not exhibit autorhythmicity

skeletal

42

uses pericytes to repair damaged muscle fibers

smooth

43

uses troponin as a regulatory protein

skeletal and cardiac

44

can be classified as single-unit or multiunit

smooth

45

can be autorhythmic

cardiac and smooth

46

uses calmodulin as a regulatory protein

smooth


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