Anatomy Block III- Popliteal Fossa and Leg

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1

what is the popliteal fossa

junction between thigh and leg, a diamond shaped space in back of the knee

2
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a. semitendinosus
b. semimembranosus
c. medial head of gastrocnemius
d. lateral head of gastrocnemius
e. biceps femoris

3

where is the popliteal pulse felt from

popliteal artery, knee flexed, palpate posteriorly for pulse

4

what is the upper medial border of the popliteal fossa

semimebranosus and semitendonosus

5

what is the upper lateral border of the popliteal fossa

biceps femoris

6

what are the lower medial and lateral borders of the popliteal fossa

medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius

7

what is the popliteal fossa covered with? what is that continuous with

covered with popliteal fascia, continuous with fascia latae, which contines down to the fascia of the leg

8

does the fossa have a lot of fat

yes

9

what are the contents of the popliteal fossa

sometimes the end of the sciatic nerve
small saphenous vein
tibial nerve
common fibular nerve
popliteal vein
popliteal artery

10

what does the small saphenous vein drain into

popliteal vein

11

what part of the leg does the small saphenous vein drain

superficial posterior part of the leg

12

where is the tibial nerve in the popliteal fossa

medial part of fossa

13

what is the tibial nerve a branch of

sciatic nerve

14

what is the fibular nerve a branch of

sciatic nerve

15

where does the common fibular nerve leave the popliteal fossa

the lateral side of the fossa

16

where is the popliteal vein in the popliteal fossa

deep in the fossa, more superficial than the artery

17

where is the popliteal artery in the popliteal artery

deep to popliteal vein

18

where does the popliteal artery branch from and what does it give off

continuation of the femoral artery, gives off some arteries that supply part of the leg like the tibial arteries

19

what is another name for the interosseus ligament

interosseus membrane

20
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a. posterior intermuscular septum
b. anterior intermuscular septum
c. deep (crural) fascia
d. interosseus membrane

21

which bone of the leg is more medial and which is more lateral

tibia medial, fibula lateral

22

what is the structure of the leg like

paired long bones with interosseus membranse in both (thick CT between two bones) and each bone has an interosseus border

23

what are teh bones of the leg

tibia
fibula
tarsal bones and other bones of the foot discussed later

24

what is the role of the tibia? what does it articulate with

weight bearing bone, articulates with the femur

25

what is the role of the fibula

bone for ankle support, also serves as a muscle attachment place and has no femur connection

26

what are the lateral and medial malleoli

they are the lateral and medial prominences on their respective sides of the ankle, formed by the fibula and tibia respectively

27

what is the interosseus membrane

CT joining tibia and fibula

28

what is the functional moving role of the interosseus membrane

allows pivot among the two bones

29

what does the interosseus membrane do structurally

divides anterior and posterior compartments

30

what is the crural fascia

deep fascia of the leg, goes tibia to tibia

31

what is the crural fascia continuous with

continuous superiorly with the popliteal fascia and fascia latae

32

what is the role of the anterior intermuscular septum

divides anterior and lateral compartments

33

what is the role of the posterior intermuscular septum

divides lateral from posteiror compartments

34

what is the role of the interosseus membrane structurally

divides anterior and posterior compartments

35

what do muscles in the same compartment typically share

muscle actions
innervation
blood supply

36

what is the shared action of muscles in the anterior compartment

dorsiflexion of ankle/foot (pulls toes up)

37

where is the anterior compartment relative to the tibia

lateral

38

what is the action of the tibialis anterior

dorsiflexion and ankle inversion (rolls ankle inwards)

39

where does the tibialis anterior attach?

tarsal bones

40

what is the action of the extensor hallucis longus

dorsiflexion and extension of the toe

41

what is the extensor hallucis longus attached to distally

big toe

42

where is extensor hallucis longus

deep to other anterior muscles, tendon visible

43

what is the action of the extensor digitorum longus

dorsiflexion and helps extend toes 2-5

44

what does the extensor digitorum longus connect with

toes 2-5

45
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a. tibialis anterior
b. extensor digitorum longus
c. fibularis tertius
d. extensor hallucis longus

46

where is the extensor digitorum longus

lateral to tibialis anterior

47

where does the fibularis tertius run

small muscle that wraps around lateral side

48

what is the action of the fibularis tertius

weak dorsiflexor and helps evert the ankle

49

what does the anterior tibial artery become within the anterior compartment

dorsalis pedis artery

50

what anterior rami make up the deep fibular nerve

L4-S1

51
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a. anterior tibial artery
b. deep fibular nerve
c. dorsalis pedis artery

52
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a. extensor digitorum longus
b. extensor hallucis longus
c. tibialis anterior

53

what does the deep fibular nerve supply

(Anterior Compartment Muscles)
tibialis anterior
extensor hallucis longus
extensor digitorum longus
fibularis tertius

54

what compartment is the tibialis anterior in

anterior

55

what compartment is the extensor hallucis longus in

anterior

56

what compartment is the extensor digitorum longus in

anterior

57

what compartment is the fibularis tertius in

anterior

58

what is the shared action of the lateral compartment

everts and plantarflexes

59

where does the lateral compartment insert

behind lateral malleolus of the fibula

60

where are the fibularis longus and fibularis brevis relative to one another

fibularis longus is superficial to fibularis brevis

61
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a. fibularis longus
b. fibularis brevis

62

what is the function of fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

evert the foot (contract to prevent ankle inversion) and plantarflexion

63

where does the fibular artery come from

posterior compartment

64

what does the fibular artery give off

perforating branches of the fibular artery

65

where does the superficial fibular nerve get its innervation from

anterior rami of L5-S2

66

what muscles does the superficial fibular nerve innervate

fibularis longus and fibularis brevis

67

what is special about the posterior compartment of the leg compared to the rest

2 layers

68

what is the shared action of the posterior compartment

plantarflexes

69

where does the tibial nerve get innervation from

L4-S3

70

what arteries are in the posterior compartment

posterior tibial artery supplies this compartment

fibular artery is found in this compartment but does not supply it

71

what vein is in the posterior compartment

tibial vein

72

what muscles are part of the superficial layer of the posterior compartment

gastrocnemius
soleus
plantaris

73
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a. lateral head of gastrocnemius
b. soleus

74

what is the role of the gastrocnemius

flexes knee and plantarflexes

75

what is interesting about the gastrocnemius

has medial and lateral heads, crosses knee joint and attaches to the femur

76

what is the power plantarflexor in the posterior compartment

gastrocnemius, important in running/sprinting

77

where is the soleus

deep to gastrocnemius

78

what does the soleus look like

large flat muscle

79

where does the soleus use for attachment (gastrocnemius uses it also)

achilles tendon

80

what is the function of the soleus

endurance plantarflexor as opposed to the power of the gastrocnemius

81

what does the plantaris do that is interesting structurally

crosses the knee

82

where is the tendon for the plantaris go?

between gastrocnemius and soleus

83

what is the role of plantaris

weak plantarflexor, may be a proprioceptor

84

which muscle has a long tendon that is called the medical student nerve

plantaris

85

what is another name for the calcaneal tendon

achilles tendon

86
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calcaneal tendon/achilles tendon

87

what do the muscles in the deep posterior layer do

plantarflex, minus one

88
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a. popliteus
b. tibialis posterior
c. flexor digitorum longus
d. flexor hallucis longus

89

which one of the deep posterior compartment muscles does not plantarflex

popliteus

90

what does the popliteus do

helps unlock keen joint, flexes knee

91

where is the popliteus located

deep

92
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a. tibial nerve
b. posterior tibial artery
c. fibular artery

93

what innervates the popliteus

tibial nerve L4-S1

94

what is the action of the flexor hallucis longus

plantarflexion of great toe

95

where is the flexor hallucis longus located relative to the rest of the muscles in the deep posterior compartment

medial

96

what is the actino of the flexor digitorum longus

plantarflexes toes 2-5

97

where is the flexor digitorum longus relative to the deep posterior compartment

lateral

98

what is the innervation of the flexor hallucis longus

tibial nerve S2, S3

99

what is the innervation of the flexor digitorum longus

tibial nerve S2, S3

100
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a. tibialis posterior
b. flexor digitorum longus
c. tibial artery
d. tibial nerve
e. flexor hallucis longus

101

what is the action of the tibialis posterior

plantarflexes and inverts

102

what muscle does the tibialis posterior invert with?

tibialis anterior

103

what innervates the tibialis posterior

tibial nerve L4 and L5

104

what does the artery tree with regard to the popliteal artery, anterior and posterior tibial arteries, and fibular artery look like

popliteal splits into anterior and posterior tibial, posterior tibial gives off fibular

105
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a. flexor hallucis longus
b. soleus
c. gastrocnemius
d. plantaris tendon
e. tibial nerve and posterior tibial artery
f. flexor digitorum longus
g. tibialis posterior

106

what is compartment syndrome

raised pressure due to infection or inflammation causes there to be a lack of blood delivered to tissues, which can lead to necrosis because of the compartmentalization

107

how could compartment syndrome develop

acutely from trauma or infection

chronically from inflammation from various sources

108

what is often done to help in a compartment syndrome

fasciotomy, which relieves the pressure

109

what is shin splints

minor case of compartment syndrome, typically in the anterior compartment or deep posterior compartment

110

how can shin splints develop

acute from inflammation from exercise

chronic from overuse

111

why is the common fibular nerve injury common

due to superficiality of the nerve

112

what are the most common symptoms from common fibular nerve injury

foot drop and foot flop

113

what do you typically lose functionally with common fibular nerve injury

dorsiflexion

114

why is loss of anterior compartment function worse than losing plantarflexion

because lateral and posterior compartment both help with plantarflexion

115

what is the retinaculum

thickenings of fascia in each compartment

116
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a. extensor retinaculum
b. fibular retinaculum

117
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a. flexor retinaculum

118

what does the extensor retinaculum do

covers most of extensors from anterior compartment

superior and inferior that cross all the way over, designed to help hold extensor tendons close to bones, keep them from bowing out

119

what are extensor retinaculum injuries usually from

high ankle sprain

120

what does the fibular retinaculum cover

lateral compartment tendons (fibularis longus and fibularis brevis)

121

what does the flexor retinaculum cover

many of posterior compartment muscles (tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis)

122

what innervates the cutaneous lower posterolateral leg

sural nerve

123

what innervates the cutaneous upper lateral leg

lateral sural cutaneous nerve

124

what innervates the cutaneous lower anterolateral leg and dorsum of the foot

superficial fibular nerve

125

what innervates the medial leg

saphenous nerve

126
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a. lateral sural cutaneous nerves
b. superficial fibular nerves
c. saphenous nerve

127
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a. saphenous nerve
b. sural nerve
c. lateral sural cutaneous nerve

128
card image

...

129
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a. lateral sural cutaneous
b. saphehous
c. superificial fibular nerve

130
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a. saphenous
b. sural nerve
c. lateral sural cutaneous


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