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A&P II Lab Practical 2

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created 5 years ago by julicarr
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**START OF KIDNEYS MASTERING HW
Urinary tract

a. Kidney
b. Urethra
c. Renal artery
d. Renal hilum
e. Renal vein
f. Ureter
g. Urinary bladder

2

The kidneys are considered to be the major homeostatic organ of the body because ________.

a. they excrete nitrogenous wastes, they maintain electrolyte balance, and they maintain acid-base and fluid balance
b. they maintain electrolyte balance
c. they maintain acid-base and fluid balance
d. they excrete nitrogenous wastes

a. they excrete nitrogenous wastes, they maintain electrolyte balance, and they maintain acid-base and fluid balance

3

Of the following urinary system organs, the homeostatic functions are performed by the

a. kidneys
b. urinary bladder
c. ureters
d. urethra

a. kidneys

4

structure or structures that are much longer in males than in females

Urethra

5

What is the function of the ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra?

a. electrolyte and acid-base balance
b. transporting or storing urine
c. excreting metabolic waste products
d. helping to control blood pressure

b. transporting or storing urine

6

The outermost portion of the kidney is called the renal ________.

a. medulla
b. column
c. cortex
d. pelvis

c. cortex

7

Name the structures in the kidney that produce urine.

a. nephrons
b. major and minor calyces
c. collecting ducts
d. afferent and efferent arterioles

a. nephrons

8

List the parts of the nephron in correct sequential order: ________.

a. proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, glomerulus
b. glomerulus, loop of Henle, proximal convoluted tubule
c. glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle
d. loop of Henle, glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule

c. glomerulus, proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle

9

The vessel that supplies blood to the nephron is called the ________.

a. afferent arteriole
b. efferent arteriole
c. renal vein
d. renal artery

a. afferent arteriole

10

Urine is formed by three processes. In which process do filtrate components that are useful to the body move from the nephron into the blood?

a. tubular secretion
b. filtration
c. tubular reabsorption

c. tubular reabsorption

11

What is true about the urethral sphincters?

a. The internal urethral sphincter is under involuntary control.
b. The internal urethral sphincter is comprised of skeletal muscle.
c. The external urethral sphincter is under involuntary control.
d. Both sphincters are under voluntary control

a. The internal urethral sphincter is under involuntary control.

12

The functional units of the kidney, the nephrons, are located primarily in the renal ________.

a. medulla
b. pelvis
c. columns
d. cortex

d. cortex

13

These cells form a porous membrane surrounding the endothelial cells of the glomerulus.

a. cuboidal cells
b. squamous cells
c. podocytes
d. columnar cells

c. podocytes

14

Many nephrons empty into a ________.

a. microcalyx
b. columnar duct
c. collecting duct
d. renal tubule

c. collecting duct

15

During filtration in the nephron, substances move ________.

a. from the glomerulus into the nephron
b. from the afferent arteriole into the glomerulus
c. from the peritubular capillary into the nephron
d. from the nephron into the peritubular capillary

a. from the glomerulus into the nephron

16

Tubular secretion in the nephron is a process by which substances move ________.

a. from the peritubular capillary into the nephron
b. from the nephron into the peritubular capillary
c. from the afferent arteriole into the glomerulus
d. from the glomerulus into the nephron

a. from the peritubular capillary into the nephron

17

What is true about the renal processes for making urine?

a. Secretion occurs only in the proximal convoluted tubule.
b. Filtration occurs only in the glomerular capsule.
c. Reabsorption occurs only in the proximal convoluted tubule.
d. Filtration occurs only in the glomerular capsule, reabsorption occurs only in the proximal convoluted tubule, and secretion occurs only in the proximal convoluted tubule.

b. Filtration occurs only in the glomerular capsule.

18

The loops of Henle of the juxtamedullary nephrons are surrounded by a looping blood vessel called the ________.

a. peritubular capillary
b. medullary loop
c. peri-Henle capillary
d. vasa recta

d. vasa recta

19

The juxtaglomerular apparatus ________.

a. contains a region of chemoreceptor cells called the macula densa in the distal loop of Henle
b. is found where the most distal part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle touches the afferent arteriole
c. contains juxtaglomerular (granular) cells in the afferent arteriole that sense blood pressure
d. is found where the most distal part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle touches the afferent arteriole, contains juxtaglomerular (granular) cells in the afferent arteriole that sense blood pressure, and contains a region of chemoreceptor cells called the macula densa in the distal loop of Henle

d. is found where the most distal part of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle touches the afferent arteriole, contains juxtaglomerular (granular) cells in the afferent arteriole that sense blood pressure, and contains a region of chemoreceptor cells called the macula densa in the distal loop of Henle

20

ADD PICS IN LP2 MCC

no data

21

**START OF KIDNEY DISSECTION
Name the strong transparent covering that encases the kidney.

a. Broad ligament
b. Renal fascia
c. Fibrous capsule
d. Perirenal fat capsule

c. fibrous capsule
**The fibrous capsule is a thin strong sheet of connective tissue that encapsulates the kidney.

22

Where does the ureter penetrate the kidney?

a. Renal cortex
b. Hilum
c. Carina
d. Renal medullla

b. Hilum
**The ureter, renal blood vessels and nerve supply all enter the kidney at the hilum.

23

The ureter, blood vessels, and nerves penetrate the kidney on its medial surface.
T/F

True
**The ureter, blood vessels, and nerve supply penetrate the kidney at its concave medial surface at the hilum.

24

The fibrous capsule is a layer of adipose tissue that surrounds the kidney.
t/f

False
**The fibrous capsule is a strong sheet of dense fibrous connective tissue. There is a layer of adipose tissue superficial to the fibrous capsule, called the perirenal fat capsule.

25

Which region of the kidney is the most superficial?

a. Renal column
b. Renal medulla
c. Renal pelvis
d. Renal cortex

d. Renal cortex
** The renal cortex is the most superficial region of the kidney. Renal corpuscles are found in the renal cortex. They are microscopic structures, so they can’t be observed on a kidney specimen. The renal corpuscles are responsible for the bumpy texture of the renal cortex that can be visualized.

26

Where does filtration of the blood occur within the kidneys?

a. Renal pyramids
b. Renal pelvis
c. Renal cortex
d. Renal medulla

c. Renal cortex
** Filtration takes place within the renal corpuscles located in the renal cortex.

27

Where are the renal columns located?

a. Renal medulla
b. Renal cortex
c. Renal pelvis
d. Renal pyramids

a. Renal medulla
** The renal columns are located between the renal pyramids in the renal medulla.

28

Identify the correct direction of urine flow from formation to exiting the kidney.

a. Cortex, medulla, ureter, renal pelvis
b. Medulla, cortex, renal pelvis, ureter
c. Ureter, renal pelvis, medulla, cortex
d. Cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, ureter

d. Cortex, medulla, renal pelvis, ureter
** Filtration occurs in the renal cortex, processing of the filtrate occurs within the renal tubules. Urine exits the renal pyramids into the renal pelvis, where it will be conveyed to the urinary bladder by the ureter.

29

Which structure is found separating the renal pyramids?

a. Ureter
b. Renal columns
c. Renal pelvis
d. Renal papillae

b. renal columns
** The renal columns are extensions of cortical tissue located in between the renal pyramids.

30

Which of the following regions of the kidney is in contact with the fibrous capsule?

a. Renal pyramid
b. Renal pelvis
c. Renal cortex
d. Renal medulla

c. renal cortex

31

A major calyx is a component of which of the following anatomical structures?

a. Renal medulla
b. Renal sinus
c. Renal cortex
d. Renal pelvis

d. Renal plevis
** The major branches of the renal pelvis are the major calyces, and the smaller branches that contact the renal papillae are the minor calyces.

32

Where does the kidney filter the blood?

a. Renal pyramid
b. Renal pelvis
c. Renal corpuscle
d. Renal tubule

c. Renal corpuscle
** The renal corpuscle is an interface between the blood supply and the kidney. It consists of the glomerulus, which is a capillary bed, and the glomerular (bowman’s) capsule, which is part of the nephron. Filtration is the exit of small substances from the blood in the glomerulus into the glomerular capsule of the

33

What is the function of the renal pelvis?

a. Collects newly formed urine
b. Receives the glomerular filtrate
c. Changes the composition of urine
d. Filters waste products out of the blood

a. Collects newly formed urine
** The minor calyces of the renal pelvis collect newly formed urine as it exits the renal papillae.

34

The medullary pyramids contain collecting tubules (ducts) that travel towards the renal cortex, carrying urine to exit the kidney. t/f

False
** the medullary pyramids contain collecting tubules that travel towards the renal papillae, carrying urine to exit the kidney.


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