Human A&P Chap. 23: Digestive System Multiple Choice

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The mechanical and chemical receptors that control digestive activity are located ________.

B) in the walls of the tract organs


The function of the hepatic portal circulation is to ________.

B) collect absorbed nutrients for metabolic processing or storage


The chemical and mechanical processes of food breakdown are called ________.

A) digestion


When we ingest large molecules such as lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins, they must
undergo catabolic reactions whereby enzymes split these molecules. This series of reactions is
called ________.

C) chemical digestion


The sheets of peritoneal membrane that hold the digestive tract in place are called ________.

A) mesenteries


From the esophagus to the anal canal, the walls of every organ of the alimentary canal are
made up of the same four basic layers. Arrange them in order from the lumen.

D) mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externa, and serosa


The structure known as the fauces is the ________.

D) passageway between the oral cavity and the pharynx


The epithelial membrane called the mucosa ________.

D) contains the lamina propria


The capillaries that nourish the epithelium and absorb digested nutrients lie in the ________.

D) lamina propria


The plicae circulares and intestinal villi are found in which of the four layers of the alimentary
tube wall?

A) mucosa


The structures that produce new cells for the mucosa of the small intestine are the ________.

C) intestinal crypts


The absorptive effectiveness of the small intestine is enhanced by increasing the surface area of
the mucosal lining. Which of the following accomplish this task?

A) plicae circulares and intestinal villi


Select the statement that is true concerning primary teeth.

C) There are 20 primary teeth, and by 24 months of age most children have all 20.


Which of the following is true concerning the number and type of permanent teeth?

A) There are 32 permanent teeth, and the wisdom teeth are the last to emerge.


Which of the following is not true of saliva?

B) contains enzymes that begin the breakdown of proteins


The salivary glands are composed of which two types of secretory cells?

C) serous cells and mucous cells


The solutes contained in saliva include ________.

D) electrolytes, digestive enzyme, mucin, lysozyme, wastes, and IgA


In addition to storage and mechanical breakdown of food, the stomach ________.

A) initiates protein digestion and denatures proteins


Chyme is created in the ________.

B) stomach


Hydrochloric acid is secreted by which of the secretory cells of the stomach?

B) parietal cells


Gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin, and somatostatin are hormones or
paracrines that are released directly into the lamina propria. Which of the following cell types
synthesize and secrete these products?

A) enteroendocrine cells


There are three phases of gastric secretion. The cephalic phase occurs ________.

A) before food enters the stomach and is triggered by aroma, sight, or thought


Peristaltic waves are ________.

D) waves of muscular contractions that propel contents from one point to another


Gastrin is a digestive hormone that is responsible for the stimulation of acid secretions in the
stomach. These secretions are stimulated by the presence of ________.

B) protein and peptide fragments


Pepsinogen, a digestive enzyme, is secreted by the ________.

A) chief cells of the stomach


You have just eaten a meal high in complex carbohydrates. Which of the following enzymes
will help to digest the meal?

B) amylase


The ducts that deliver bile and pancreatic juice from the liver and pancreas, respectively, unite
to form the ________.

D) hepatopancreatic ampulla


The enzymatic breakdown of any type of food molecule is called ________.

C) hydrolysis


Short-chain triglycerides found in foods such as butterfat molecules in milk are split by a
specific enzyme in preparation for absorption. Which of the following enzymes is responsible?

C) lipase


Parietal cells of the stomach produce ________.

C) hydrochloric acid


Hepatocytes do not ________.

A) produce digestive enzymes


Which of the following is not a phase of gastric secretion?

D) enterogastric


Which vitamin requires intrinsic factor in order to be absorbed?

A) B12


Chief cells ________.

C) are found in the basal regions of the gastric glands


Chemical digestion reduces large complex molecules to simpler compounds by the process of

B) catabolism


The ________ contains lobules with sinusoids (lined with macrophages) that lead to a central
venous structure

A) liver


If an incision has to be made in the small intestine to remove an obstruction, the first layer of tissue to be cut is the ________.

A) serosa


The terminal portion of the small intestine is known as the ________.

B) ileum


The dental formula for an adult is 2-1-2-3. What does the 1 stand for?

D) canine tooth


Digestion of which of the following would be affected the most if the liver were severely

A) lipids


________ is locally regulated in the blood by the active form of vitamin D, which acts as a

D) Calcium


Important peritoneal folds do not include the ________.

D) round ligament


The lamina propria is composed of ________.

A) loose connective tissue


________ is/are not important as a stimulus in the gastric phase of gastric secretion

B) Carbohydrates


Pancreatic amylase does not get to the small intestine via the ________.

C) cystic duct


The function of the goblet cells is to ________.

B) produce mucus that protects parts of the digestive organs from the effects of powerful
enzymes needed for food digestion


Under normal conditions, the gastric mucosa pours out as much as ________.

C) 2 to 3 liters of gastric juice per day


Nervous control of gastric secretion is provided by ________.

B) the vagus nerve and enteric plexus


Which of the following are types of papillae on the tongue that contain taste buds?

A) fungiform and circumvallate


Which of the following produce intrinsic factor?

A) parietal cells


Which of the following enzymes is specific for proteins?

C) trypsin


Surgical cutting of the lingual frenulum would occur in which part of the body?

A) tongue


A fluid secreted into the small intestine during digestion that contains cholesterol,
emulsification agents, and phospholipids is ________.

A) bile


The layer of the digestive tube that contains blood vessels, lymphatic nodes, and a rich supply
of elastic fibers is the ________.

B) submucosa


Which of the following is not characteristic of the large intestine? It ________.

C) is longer than the small intestine


Tooth structure includes ________.

C) a thin periodontal ligament that holds the tooth in place


The propulsion of food down the gastrointestinal tract includes ________.

A) the pharyngeal-esophageal phase, an involuntary process


Select the correct statement about the regulation of gastric secretion.

C) Gastric secretion can be stimulated before food has entered the mouth


Paneth cells ________.

C) secrete enzymes that kill bacteria


Select the correct statement about digestive processes.

C) Chyme entering the duodenum can decrease gastric motility via the enterogastric reflex


Chemical digestion in the small intestine involves ________.

B) cholecystokinin (CCK), an intestinal hormone responsible for gallbladder contraction


Select the correct statement about absorption.

C) If intact proteins are transported across the villus epithelium, an immune response may
be generated.


Select the correct statement about electrolyte absorption.

D) Iron and calcium are absorbed mostly by the duodenum


You have just eaten french fries, buttered toast, ice cream, and whole milk. Which of the
following glands would be active in helping you to digest this food?

A) the pancreas


The ingestion of a meal high in fat content would cause which of the following to occur?

C) Bile would be released from the gallbladder to emulsify the fat in the duodenum.


The mucosa of the developing alimentary tube comes from ________.

C) endoderm


A baby is admitted to the hospital with a history of projectile vomiting after each feeding. On
examination, it is found that the sphincter controlling food passage from the stomach to the
duodenum is thickened and does not open readily. Because of the babyʹs loss of gastric juice,
his blood probably indicates ________.

C) alkalosis


Hormones or paracrines that inhibit gastric secretion include ________.

B) secretin


Which of these is not part of the splanchnic circulation?

B) inferior vena cava


Which of these is not a component of saliva?

D) nitric oxide


There are some 20 known pathogens found in the large intestine; our Ig ________
antibody-mediated response restricts them from going beyond the mucosa and causing

B) IgA

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