Human A&P Chap. 24: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temp. Regulation Multiple Choice

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The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood
cells is ________.

B) glucose


Peptides called NPY and AgRP ________.

D) are powerful appetite enhancers


Dietary fats are important because ________.

B) they help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins


Cholesterol, while it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because ________.

A) it is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of
steroid hormones


Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?

D) must meet all the bodyʹs amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth


The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules
for energy


The term metabolic rate includes ________.

A) the total heat produced by the body


When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is

A) urea


It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients


Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes?

A) dehydrogenases and oxidases


A diet rich in minerals would include which of the following foods?

C) legumes, milk, and pork


Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones


Catabolism would be best described as a processes that ________.

C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones


The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

D) break down food molecules and generate ATP


The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.

D) lipolysis


Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

A) oxidative phosphorylation


Lipogenesis occurs when ________.

D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high


Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

A) liver


Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.

C) transferred to a keto acid


Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

B) absorptive state


Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting

A) release of epinephrine


Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors


Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid


Among the conditions required for measuring the basal metabolic rate is ________.

C) keeping the room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C


The primary function of carbohydrates is ________.

C) energy production within cells


In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the
body for all of the following except ________.

A) production of energy


The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

D) triglycerides


Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________.

A) radiation


In carbohydrate metabolism, the carbohydrates ________.

A) are converted into fat if present in excess


Prostaglandins play a role in ________.

D) control of blood pressure


Vitamins are organic compounds. They ________.

C) often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis


As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________
continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

B) brain


In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted
to glucose.

A) glycerol


In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.

C) ammonia


Which of the following is most correct?

A) Saturated fats stimulate the liver to synthesize cholesterol.


Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.

D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels


The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in
determining BMR.

B) thyroxine


When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates
increased metabolism of ________.

B) fatty acids


Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body


The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.

A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age


The primary reason the elderly seem to have more negative nutrition-related effects from
medications is that ________.

D) medications taken for many age-related disorders interfere with nutrient absorption


Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of mineral oil as a laxative?

A) It interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble minerals.


While the amount of protein required in the diet varies depending on age, size, and needs, the
daily recommendation is approximately ________.

B) 0.8 g/kg body weight


Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when

A) fats


Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

B) glycolysis


Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?

C) It involves the anabolism of fats.


Select the correct statement about proteins

C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are


Oxidation reduction reactions ________.

B) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons


Vitamin ________ is present in the body as coenzyme FAD and FMN and is a component of
amino acid oxidase.

D) B2


The ʺpickupʺ molecule for the Krebs cycle is ________ acid.

C) oxaloacetic


Which of the following is correct?

B) Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation


Which of the following is correct?

C) Lipogenesis is triglyceride synthesis.


Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

D) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish


Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include

C) excessive amounts of protein in the diet


When a personʹs hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body
temperature is below that level, the person may ________.

D) shiver


Select the correct statement

B) Cellular respiration is a catabolic process


The liver synthesizes lipoproteins for cholesterol transport. Select the other function(s) of the

A) synthesizes a component essential for blood clotting


Glucose can be obtained from ________.

A) glycogenolysis


Which is not a function of LDLs?

A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver


Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

A) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.

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