Human A&P Chap. 24: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Body Temp. Regulation Multiple Choice

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1

The molecule that serves as the major source of readily available fuel for neurons and blood
cells is ________.

B) glucose

2

Peptides called NPY and AgRP ________.

D) are powerful appetite enhancers

3

Dietary fats are important because ________.

B) they help the body absorb fat-soluble vitamins

4

Cholesterol, while it is not an energy molecule, has importance in the body because ________.

A) it is a stabilizing component of the plasma membranes and is the parent molecule of
steroid hormones

5

Which of the following statements best describes complete protein?

D) must meet all the bodyʹs amino acid requirements for maintenance and growth

6

The term metabolism is best defined as ________.

D) biochemical reactions involved in building cell molecules or breaking down molecules
for energy

7

The term metabolic rate includes ________.

A) the total heat produced by the body

8

When proteins undergo deamination, the waste substance found in the urine is
mostly________.

A) urea

9

It is important to ensure that your diet is adequately rich in vitamins because ________.

C) most vitamins are coenzymes needed to help the body utilize essential nutrients

10

Oxidation-reduction reactions are catalyzed by which of the following enzymes?

A) dehydrogenases and oxidases

11

A diet rich in minerals would include which of the following foods?

C) legumes, milk, and pork

12

Anabolism includes reactions in which ________.

B) larger molecules or structures are built from smaller ones

13

Catabolism would be best described as a processes that ________.

C) breaks down complex structures to simpler ones

14

The primary function of cellular respiration is to ________.

D) break down food molecules and generate ATP

15

The process of breaking triglycerides down into glycerol and fatty acids is known as ________.

D) lipolysis

16

Which of the following mechanisms produces the most ATP during cellular respiration?

A) oxidative phosphorylation

17

Lipogenesis occurs when ________.

D) cellular ATP and glucose levels are high

18

Oxidative deamination takes place in the ________.

A) liver

19

Transamination is the process whereby the amine group of an amino acid is ________.

C) transferred to a keto acid

20

Glycogen is formed in the liver during the ________.

B) absorptive state

21

Which of the following is a normal consequence of the activation of the heat-promoting
center?

A) release of epinephrine

22

Gluconeogenesis is the process in which ________.

B) glucose is formed from noncarbohydrate precursors

23

Glycolysis is best defined as a catabolic reaction based upon the ________.

B) conversion of glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid

24

Among the conditions required for measuring the basal metabolic rate is ________.

C) keeping the room temperature between 20 and 25 degrees C

25

The primary function of carbohydrates is ________.

C) energy production within cells

26

In the case of a person who consumes a normal, balanced diet, proteins are essential to the
body for all of the following except ________.

A) production of energy

27

The most abundant dietary lipids are ________.

D) triglycerides

28

Loss of heat in the form of infrared waves is termed ________.

A) radiation

29

In carbohydrate metabolism, the carbohydrates ________.

A) are converted into fat if present in excess

30

Prostaglandins play a role in ________.

D) control of blood pressure

31

Vitamins are organic compounds. They ________.

C) often function as coenzymes to assist in catalysis

32

As the body progresses from the absorptive to the postabsorptive state, only the ________
continues to burn glucose while every other organ in the body mostly switches to fatty acids.

B) brain

33

In gluconeogenesis, during the postabsorptive state, amino acids and ________ are converted
to glucose.

A) glycerol

34

In the liver, the amine group of glutamic acid is removed as ________ in the oxidative state.

C) ammonia

35

Which of the following is most correct?

A) Saturated fats stimulate the liver to synthesize cholesterol.

36

Heat-loss mechanisms do not include ________.

D) vasoconstriction of peripheral blood vessels

37

The amount of ________ produced is probably the most important hormonal factor in
determining BMR.

B) thyroxine

38

When ketone bodies are present in the blood and urine in large amounts, it usually indicates
increased metabolism of ________.

B) fatty acids

39

Many factors influence BMR. What is the most critical factor?

C) the ratio of surface area to volume (weight) of the body

40

The primary reason elderly people should decrease their caloric intake is that ________.

A) muscle mass and metabolism decline with age

41

The primary reason the elderly seem to have more negative nutrition-related effects from
medications is that ________.

D) medications taken for many age-related disorders interfere with nutrient absorption

42

Which of the following statements is true regarding the use of mineral oil as a laxative?

A) It interferes with the absorption of fat-soluble minerals.

43

While the amount of protein required in the diet varies depending on age, size, and needs, the
daily recommendation is approximately ________.

B) 0.8 g/kg body weight

44

Which of the following nutrients yield the highest amount of energy per gram when
metabolized?

A) fats

45

Which of the following does not occur in the mitochondria?

B) glycolysis

46

Which of the following is not true of beta oxidation?

C) It involves the anabolism of fats.

47

Select the correct statement about proteins

C) Proteins will be used by most cells for ATP synthesis if insufficient carbohydrates are
ingested

48

Oxidation reduction reactions ________.

B) may involve the loss of hydrogen and electrons

49

Vitamin ________ is present in the body as coenzyme FAD and FMN and is a component of
amino acid oxidase.

D) B2

50

The ʺpickupʺ molecule for the Krebs cycle is ________ acid.

C) oxaloacetic

51

Which of the following is correct?

B) Oxidation of FADH2 eventually yields four ATP via oxidative phosphorylation

52

Which of the following is correct?

C) Lipogenesis is triglyceride synthesis.

53

Which of the following food groups are considered good sources of complete proteins?

D) eggs, milk, yogurt, meat, and fish

54

Conditions that promote the oxidative deamination and energy use of amino acids include
________.

C) excessive amounts of protein in the diet

55

When a personʹs hypothalamic thermostat is set to a higher level and the actual body
temperature is below that level, the person may ________.

D) shiver

56

Select the correct statement

B) Cellular respiration is a catabolic process

57

The liver synthesizes lipoproteins for cholesterol transport. Select the other function(s) of the
liver.

A) synthesizes a component essential for blood clotting

58

Glucose can be obtained from ________.

A) glycogenolysis

59

Which is not a function of LDLs?

A) transport cholesterol from the peripheral tissues to the liver

60

Which of the following best defines negative nitrogen balance?

A) Protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis.


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