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Medical Terminology Ch. 9

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created 5 years ago by kategre18
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updated 5 years ago by kategre18

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College: First year, College: Second year, College: Third year, College: Fourth year

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1

Alimentation

the process of providing nutrition for the body

2

Ingestion

the oral intake of substances into the body (in humans)

3

Digestion

the mechanical and chemical conversion of food into substances that can be eventually absorbed by cells

4

Absorption

the process in which digested food molecules pass through the lining of the small intestine into the blood or lymph capillaries

5

Elimination

removal of undigested food particles

6

Defecation

elimination of wastes through the anus in the form of feces

7

Lactase

enzyme that breaks down lactose

8

Glucose

a simple sugar that is the major source of energy for the body

9

Amylase

enzyme that breaks down starch

10

Protease or Proteinase

effective enzyme that breaks down protein

11

Lipase

effective enzyme that breaks down a lipid (fat)

12

Gastrointestinal

refers to the stomach and intestines

13

Oral surgeon

one who specializes in the surgery of the mouth

14

Gingival

pertaining to the gum

15

hypoglossal

under the tongue

16

sublingual

a type of medication that is placed under the tongue, where the medicine dissolves

17

dental

pertaining to teeth

18

pedodontics

deals with the teeth and mouth conditions of children

19

orthodontics

the branch of dentistry concerned with tooth alignment and associated with facial problems

20

Orthodontist

a specialist in orthodontics

21

periodontium

tissue that supports the teeth and keeps them firmly anchored

22

Periodontal

pertaining to the periodontium

23

Gastric lavage

washing out of the stomach

24

gastralgia & gastrodynia

pain of the stomach

25

gasteroentrology

the study of the stomach, intestines, and associated structures

26

gasteroenterologist

a physician who specializes in gasteroenterology

27

Ileocecal valve

a group of muscles that are located between the ileum & the cecum

28

Sigmoid colon

the latter part of the colon that is S-shaped

29

protcologist

a physician who specializes in diseases of the anus and rectum as well as disorders of the colon

30

Bile

produced by the liver to break down fats before absorption by the small intestine

31

biliary

pertaining to bile

32

cholecystic

pertaining to the gallbladder

33

choledochal

pertaining to the common bile duct

34

insulin

a hormone that regulates the blood sugar level

35

esophagram or esophagogram

an x-ray image of the esophagus while the patient swallows a liquid barium suspension

36

barium meal

ingested in the upper GI series and the radiographic examination is made as the barium passes through the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum

37

barium enema

lower intestinal tract is studied with a rectal infusion of barium sulfate

38

biliary tract

the pathway for bile to flow from the liver to the bile duct and into the duodenum

39

biliary calculus

gallstone; a stone that is formed in the biliary tract varying in size from very small to very large

40

cholelithiasis

the presence of stones in the gallbladder

41

choledocholithiasis

stones that become lodged in the common bile duct

42

pancreatolithiasis

the presence of a pancreatic stone

43

sialography

studying the salivary glands by injecting radiopaque substances into the duct

44

esophagoscopy

if the focus of an upper garstrointestinal endoscopy is the esophagus

45

gastroscopy

f the focus of an upper garstrointestinal endoscopy is the stomach

46

colonoscopy

the endoscopic examination of the lining of the colon with a colonoscope

47

sigmoidscopy

inspection of the rectum and sigmoid with an endoscope

48

proctoscopy

endoscopic examination of the rectum with a proctoscope

49

Diabetes mellitus (DM)

a result or resistance to insulin or lack of insulin secretion by the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas

50

hyperglycemia

increased glucose level in the blood

51

polyphagia

excessive hunger & uncontrollable eating

52

polyuria

excessive urination

53

polydipsia

excessive thirst

54

glycosuria

urine that contains glucose

55

Gestational diabetes mellitus

first recognized during pregnancy usually caused by a deficiency of insulin

56

hypoglycemia

the pancreas produces too much insulin and the blood contains less than the normal amount of sugar

57

hyperlipemia

cholesterol is elevated
increased amount of fat or lipids in the blood

58

obesity

abnormal increase in the proportion of fat cells in the body

59

emesis

vomiting

60

dehydration

the output of body fluid exceeds the fluid intake

61

emaciation

excessive leanness caused by disease or lack of nutrition

62

anorexia

loss of appetite for food

63

anorexia nervosa

associated with psychological stress or conflict, characterized by prolonged refusal to eat that results in emaciation

64

bulimia

characterized by episodes of binge eating that often terminate in sells induced vomiting

65

malnutrition

depletion of nutrients for body cells

66

malabsorption syndrom

complex of symptoms that include anorexia, weight loss, flatulence, muscle contractions, and bone pain

67

flatulence

excessive gas in the stomach and intestinal tract that leads to bloating

68

appendicitis

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

69

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

70

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

71

hepatic

pertaining to the liver

72

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells

73

hepatotoxic

toxic or destructive to the liver

74

cholangitis

inflammation of the bile ducts

75

cholangiography

x-ray examination of the bile ducts, usually a contrast agent

76

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

77

pancreatolith

pancreatic stone

78

sialolithiasis

presence of a salivary stone

79

eupepsia

good or normal digestion

80

dyspepsia

bad, poor, or abnormal digestion

81

visceral

pertaining to the large internal organs in the abdominal cavity

82

peritoneum

membrane that surrounds the viscera and lines the abdominal cavity

83

peritonitis

inflammation of the peritoneum

84

hernia

protrusion of an organ through an abnormal opening in the muscle wall of the cavity

85

canker sores

ulcers of the mouth & lips

86

cheilitis

inflammation of the lips

87

gingivitis

inflammation of the gums

88

glossitis

inflammation of the tongue

89

stomatitis

inflammation of the mouth

90

dysphagia

inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing

91

esophageal varices

a complex of enlarged & swollen veins at the lower end of the esophagus that are susceptible to hemorrhage

92

esophagitis

inflammation of the esophagus

93

gastresophageal reflux disease (GERD)

condition resulting from the back flow of the stomach contents into the esophagus

94

gastritis

inflammation of the stomach

95

gastrocele

herniation of the stomach

96

gastroenteritis

inflammation of the stomach and intestinal tract

97

hyperacidity

excessive amount of acid in the stomach

98

ulcer

lesion of mucus membrane accompanied by shedding of dead tissue

99

upper gastrointestinal bleeding

bleeding of the upper digestive structures, sometimes evidence of blood in the vomit

100

appendicitis

inflammation of the vermiform appendix

101

colitis

inflammation of the colon

102

diverticulitis

inflammation of a diverticulum in the intestinal tract, especially in the colon, causing stagnation of feces and pain

103

diverticulum

a small sac or pouch in the wall of an organ

104

diverticulosis

the presence of diverticula without inflammation

105

duodenal ulcer

an ulcer of the duodenum

106

duodenitis

inflammation of the duodenum

107

enterostasis

stoppage or delay in the passage of food through the intestine

108

hemorrhoids

masses of veins in the anal canal that are unnaturally distended and lie just inside or outside the rectum

109

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

abnormally increased motility of large and small intestines of unknown origin

110

lower gastrointestinal bleeding

bleeding of the lower digestive structures

111

cholecystitis

inflammation of the gallbladder

112

cholelithiasis

formation or presence of gallstones in the gallbladder or common bile duct

113

cholestasis

stoppage of bile excretion

114

cirrhosis

chronic liver disease characterized by marked degeneration of liver cells

115

hepatitis

inflammation of the liver

116

hepatomegaly

enlargement of the liver

117

diabetes

general term for diseases characterized by excessive urination

118

hypoglycemia

condition in which the blood glucose level is abnormally low

119

pancreatitis

inflammation of the pancreas

120

esophagostomy

a tube is inserted through a new opening made in the esophagus

121

gastrostomy

a tube is inserted through a new opening made in the stomach

122

Jejunostomy

a tube is inserted through a new opening made in the jejunum

123

anorexiant

an appetite-supressing drug

124

gastroplasty
gastric bypass

surgical approaches for treating extreme obesity, generally used when conservative methods have failed, limit food intake or absorption

125

antidiarrheals

used to treat diarrhea

126

antiemetics

relieve or prevent vomiting

127

laxatives

evacuation of the bowel and may be prescribed to correct constipation

128

purgatives
cathartics

strong medications used to promote full evacuation of the bowel, as in preparation for diagnostic studies or surgery of the digestive tract

129

appendectomy

removal of the vermiform appendix

130

cholecystectomy

surgical removal of the gallbladder

131

colostomy

creation of an artificial anus on the abdominal wall by incising the colon and drawing it out to the surface

132

gastrectomy

surgical removal of all or part of the stomach

133

gastroduodenostomy

when the remaining part of a gastrectomy is joined to the duodenum

134

anastomosis

the joining of two organs, vessels, or ducts that are normally separate

135

gastrostomy

surgical creation of a new opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall

136

hemorrhoidectomy

removal of hemorrhoids by any of several means, including surgery

137

ileostomy

creation of a surgical passage through the abdominal wall into the ileum

138

laparoscopy

examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope through one or more small incisions in the abdominal wall

139

liver biopsy

removal of tissue from the liver for pathologic examination

140

percutaneous liver biopsy

removal of liver tissue by using a needle to puncture the skin overlying the liver

141

pancreatolithectomy

excision of a pancreatic stone

142

vagotomy

resection of portions of the vagus nerve near the stomach


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