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Anatomy Block III- Intro to the Upper Limb, Brachial Plexus

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created 5 years ago by aversaj
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updated 5 years ago by aversaj

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1

what are teh bones of the upper limb

pectoral girdle: clavicle and scapula
humerus
ulna
radius

2

what does the pectoral girdle do

attaches bones of upper limb to axial skeleton

3

what skeleton are the clavicle and scapula part of

appendicular

4

what is the only part of the upper limb that articulates with the axial skeleton

clavicle

5

what is the shoulder blade

scapula

6

what is the large long bone of the upper arm

humerus

7

what is the fixed bone of the forearm

ulna, always associated with pinky finger

8

what bone follows the thumb when pronating/supinating forearm

radius

9
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a. brachial artery
b. axillary artery
c. subclavian artery
d. brachiocephalic trunk

10

what does the right side have in arterial supply that the left side does not

brachiocephalic trunk that splits into right common carotid and subclavian

11

what supplies blood to the upper extremity

subclavian artery

12

when does the subclavian artery become the axillary artery

first rib

13
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a. axillary artery
b. first rib

14
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a. teres major
b. brachial artery

15

when does the axillary artery become the brachial artery

teres MAJOR

16

what is the path of the brachial artery and what does it give off

down humerus and crosses elbow, gives off radial and ulnar arteries

17
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a. deep palmar arch
b. radial artery
c. brachial artery
d. ulnar artery
e. superficial palmar arch

18

what is the medial branch of the brachial artery

ulnar artery

19

what is the lateral branch of the brachial artery

radial artery

20

where do the radial and ulnar arteries anastomose

palm of hand, forming superficial and deep palmar arch

21

what do the superficiel and deep palmar arches give off

digital arteries to supply fingers

22

what takes care of the deep venous drainage of the upper extremity

ulnar, radial, brachial, axillary veins

23

which veins in the hand are often paired

radial, ulnar, brachial

24

where are the superficial veins located

superficial fascia

25

what side of the arm is the cephalic vein

preaxial

26

where does the cephalic vein pass through in the axillary region

between deltoid and pec major (deltopectoral groove)

27

when does the basilic vein run into the axillary ven

when it joins with the brachial vein

28

what does the median cubital vein join

cephalic and basilic veins

29

what does the median cubital vein sit on top of

biceps brachii tendon

30

what does the brachial plexus provide in general

motor and sensory

31

where are the anterior rami of the brachial plexus from

C5-T1

32

what is interesting about the makeup of the brachial plexus

converge and diverge multiple times to form many segments

33

what is a prefixed brachial plexus

anterior ramus of C4 contributes to brachial plexus

34

what is a postfixed brachial plexus

anterior ramus of T2 contributes, may or may not have C5 involved

35
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a. middle scalene
b. brachial plexus
c. anterior scalene

36
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a. dorsal scapular nerve
b. long thoracic nerve
c. subclavian nerve
d. suprascapular nerve
e. medial pectoral nerve
f. upper subscapular nerve
g. lateral pectoral nerve
h. thoracodorsal nerve
i. lower subscapular nerve
j. medial cutaneous nerve of the arm
k. medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm
l. ulnar nerve
m. radial nerve (axillary comes off farther back)
n. median nerve
o. musculocutaneous nerve

37

where does the brachial plexus leave from? what does it go between

posterior triangel in neck between anterir and middle scalelen, follow near subclavian artery

38

what are teh divisions of motor neurons of the brachial plexus

anterior and posterir divisions

39

what does the anterior part of the brachial plexus supply

flexors

40

what does the posterior part of the brachial plexus supply

extensors

41

where are the sympathetics of the brachial plexus from

T2-T6

42

what are teh sympathetic brachial plexus functions

vasomotor
arrector pilli muscles
sweat gland fucntion in skin

43

what makes up the roots of the brachial plexus

anterior rami of C5-T1

44

what major nerves come off the roots of the brachial plexus

dorsal scapular nerve
long thoracic nerve

45

what does the dorsal scapular nerve supply

rhomboid major and minor and levator scapulae

46

what does the long thoracic nerve supply

serratus anterior

47

where are the trunks of the brachial plexus from

posterior triangle of neck

48

what levels is the superior trunk of the BP from

C5 and C6

49

what levels is the middle trunk of the brachial plexus from

C7

50

what levels is the inferior trunk of the brachial plexus from

C8 and T1

51

what are teh major nerves that come off of the superior trunk of BP

subclavian nerve
suprascapular nerve

52

what does the subclavian nerve supply

subclavius

53

what does the suprascapular nerve supply

supraspinatus and infraspinatus (rotator cuff muscles)

54

where are the divisions of the BP

behind the clavicle

55

what are teh divisions of the BP

anterior and posterior

56

what muscles do the atnerior divisions supply

flexors

57

what muscles do the posterior divisions supply

extensors

58

where are teh cords of the BP

around the axillary artery

59

what are the cords named for

in relation to the axillary artery

60

what BP parts form the lateral cord of the BP

anterior division of superior and middle trunks

61

what nerve comes off lateral cord of BP

lateral pectoral N.

62

what does the lateral pectoral nerve supply

pectoralis major

63

what BP parts form the medial cord of the BP

anterior division of inferior trunk

64

what nerves come off the medial cord of the BP

medial pectorsal n
medial cutaneous nerve of the arm
medial cutaneous nerve of the forearm

65

what does the medial pectoral nerve innervate

pec minor and part of pec major

66

what does the medial cutaneous nerve of the arm innervate

cutaneous arm

67

what BP parts form the posterior cord of the BP

posterior division of ant, middle, and inferior trunks

68

what nerves come off the posterior cord of the BP

upper subscapular n
thoracodorsal n
lower subscapular n

69

what does the upper subscapular nerve innervate

superior subscapularis

70

what does the thoracodorsal nerve innervate

latissimus dorsi

71

what does the lower subscapular nerve innervate

teres major and lower subscapularis muscle

72

what are the terminal nerves of the BP called in general

branches

73

what part of the BP do the branches come from

cords

74

what are the anterior branches

musculocutaneous branch
medial branch
ulnar branch

75

what are teh posterior branches

axillary
radial

76

where does the musculocutaneous nerve come from

C5-C7

77

what cord does the musculoctaneous branch of BP come from

lateral cord

78

what does the musculocutaneous branch of BP innervate

arm flexors, skin on lateral forearm

79

what levesl does the median nerve come from

C5-T1

80

what cords does the median nerve come from

lateral and medial cord

81

what does the median nerve innervate

forearm flexors and skin on part of hand

82

what levels does the ulnar branch of BP come from

C8-T1

83

what cord does the ulnar branch of BP come from

medial cord

84

what does the ulnar branch of BP innervate

most of hand and skin on part of hand

85

what levels does the axillary barnch of BP come from

C5, C6

86

what cord does the axillary branch of BP come from

posterior cord

87

what does the axillary barnch of BP inervate

deltoid, teres minor, skin on proximal aprt of arm

88

what levels does the radial barnch of BP come from

C5-T1

89

what cord is the radial branch of BP come from

posterior cord

90

what does the radial branch of BP innervate

extensors of arm and forearm,parts of skin of arm, forearm, and hand

91

how would one get a stinger/burner

force head flexion away from shoulder depression

92

what happens in a stinger/burner

stretches brachial plexus, initiating repair response that can take function away temporarily

93

what are symptoms of stigner

tingling, numbness, weakenss to afected side

94

what can the inflammatory response of a stinger/burner lead to

narrowing of IV foramen

95

what will happen with an upper brachial plexus injury

Erb's palsy

96

what levels does Erb's palsy affect

C5-C6 superior trunk

97

what happens in Erb's palsy

severe stretching or rupture of roots

98

what is the characteristic limb position of Erb's palsy

waiter's tip palsy with an extended arm, hand turned backwards

99

what happens with an upper brachial plexus injury with anasthesia

anasthesia of lateral arm and forearm

100

what will happen in anasthesia with a lower brachial plexus injury

anasthesia of medial forearm and hand

101

what levels does Klumpke's palsy affect

C8-T1 inferior trunk

102

what happens with Klumpke's palsy to cause the injury

upper limb is pulled superiorly

103

what is a claw hand deformity

loss of fine motor movement of hand due to overriding flexor muscles

104

what type of injury may result in Horner's syndrome

lower brachial plexus injury

105

what happens in a lower BP injury that involves Horner's syndrome

cervical sympathetic chain may also be damaged

106

what is a winged scapula the result of

injury to long thoracic nerve; leads to serratus anterior paratlyssi

107

what is the role of serratus anterior usually

keeps scapula close to thoracic cage so when injured the scapula wings outward

108

what is another naem for crutch palsy

saturday night or drunkards paralysis

109

what is crutch palsy from

compression of BP in axillary region, particularly posterior cord radial nerve

110

what type of anasthesia results from crutch palsy

lateral and posterior part of arm and posterior forearm

111

what can crutch palsy lead to

hand drop

112

what can axillary nerve injury be from

damage or injury to proximal humerus
dislocation

113

where is anasthesia in an axillary nerve injury

inferior part of deltoid

114

if axillary nerve injury is too severe, what can it lead to

deltoid atrophy, thereofre loss of ability to abduct arm

115

what is thoracic outlet syndrome

compression of vessels/nerves, variable afffected

116

who are more prone to thoracic outlet syndrome

people with cervical ribs

117

what is the typical compressing bones of thoracic outlet syndrome

clavicle and ribs

118

what happens vascularly with thoracic outlet syndrome

subclavian artery is compressed and there is a reduction in distal pulses such as radial and brachial

119

what happens nuerologocally with thoracic outlet syndrome

tingling, numbness, weakness of upper extremity

120

what is adson's test

arm hyperextended/hyperadducted and head toward it; tries to minimize effects of BP injury

121

what is allen's test

arm hyperextended/hyperadducted and head away from it; tries to minimize effects of BP injury

122

do adsons or allens' test assess bilaterally

yes, if you have thoracic outlet syndrom it is on one side usually

123

what is the roos test

horizontal position, fully externally rotated upper extremity for 30 seconds to one minute, flex hands like pumping motion to see if symptoms come up

124
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Adson's test

125
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Roos Test

126
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Allen's Test


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