BIO CHAPTER 44

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1) You just received a freshwater aquarium as a gift and decide to add more fish. When you get to the pet store, you find that the most beautiful fish are saltwater animals, but you decide to buy them anyway. What will happen when you put your expensive saltwater fish in your freshwater aquarium?
A)The fish will get larger more quickly in the healthier conditions of fresh water.
B) Nothing: the fish will live normally.
C) The cells of the fish will take up too much water, and the fish will die.
D) The fish will dehydrate and die.
E) In the better conditions of fresh water, the fish adjust and do better than in salt water.

C

2

Terrestrial animals are _____.
A) likely to have the same problems with osmoregulation as do freshwater fish
B) osmoregulators that must obtain water from the environment
C) obligated to protect their eggs from drying with water-resistant shells
D) usually nocturnal
E) either arthropods or vertebrates

B

3

Birds, insects, and many reptiles excrete nitrogenous waste in the form of uric acid, which _____.

A) reduces energy use compared to other nitrogenous wastes, but is
highly toxic to animals that produce it

B) reduces water loss compared to other nitrogenous wastes, but is highly toxic

C) reduces water loss compared to other nitrogenous wastes, but requires
more metabolic energy to produce

D) is much more soluble in water than other nitrogenous wastes, but is
energetically costlier than other nitrogenous wastes to synthesize

C

4

Freshwater fish excrete nitrogenous wastes as ____
A) ammonia
B) guano
C) uric acid
D) urea
E) proteins

A

5

Urine formed by a kidney collects in the _____ before being drained from the kidney by the _____ and transported to the _____.

A urethra ... urinary bladder ... ureter
B renal pelvis ... medulla ... cortex
C renal pelvis ... ureter ...urinary bladder
D renal pelvis ... urethra ... urinary bladder
E ureter ... renal pelvis ... urinary bladder

C

6

The _____ are the major blood vessels transporting blood to the kidneys

A pulmonary arteries
B glomerulus
C renal arteries
D renal veins
E venae cavae

C

7

The outer part of the kidney is the _____.
A medulla
B nephron
C lacteal
D cortex
E Bowman's capsule

D

8

Which of these is the functional unit of a kidney?

A neuron
B villi
C nephron
D alveolus
E osteon

C

9

In which region of the nephron is a steep osmotic gradient created?
A Loop of Henle.
B Distal tubule.
C Collecting duct.
D Proximal tubule.

A

10

Which of the following statements best describes the actions of the hormone ADH on the nephron?
A ADH causes the distal tubule to increase Na+ reabsorption when Na+ levels in the blood are low.
B ADH causes the proximal tubule to increase glucose reabsorption when the body's energy needs are high.
C ADH causes the loop of Henle to increase urea reabsorption under conditions of dehydration.
D ADH causes the collecting duct to increase water reabsorption by the surrounding tissue under conditions of dehydration.

D

11

What is the driving force for the filtration of blood by the renal corpuscle?
A The presence of microvilli.
B Higher pressure in glomerular capillaries than in the surrounding Bowman's capsule.
C The diffusion of small solutes such as urea down a concentration gradient.
D The presence of large pores in the glomerular capillaries and filtration slits.

B

12

The movement of substances from the blood into the proximal tubule is known as _____.
A filtration
B dialysis
C secretion
D reabsorption
E none of these

C

13

Which of these is reabsorbed from filtrate

A sodium chloride
B glucose
C water
D amino acids
E all of these

E

14

As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.
A Moreā€¦urea
B less ... urea
C more ... water
D less ... water
E less ... water and urea

C

15

The most abundant solute in urine is _____.

A Glucose
B water
c plasma proteins
d sodium chloride
e urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)

E

16

Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____.

A secretion
B diffusion
C dialysis
D active transport
E osmosis

D

17

The fluid with the highest osmolarity is

A Distillesd water
B estuarine water.
C plasma in mammals.

D plasma in birds.
E seawater in a tidal pool.

E

18

Birds that live in marine environments and thus lack access to fresh drinking water

A obtain water by eating only osmoregulating prey.
B drink seawater and secrete excess ions through their kidneys only.
C osmoregulate without using a transport epithelium for this purpose.
D drink seawater and secrete excess ions mainly through their nasal salt glands.
E have plasma that is isoosmotic to ocean water.

D

19

Osmoconforming sharks take in water, as needed,

A via active transport of water across the cells on their gills.
B via osmosis, as their body cells are slightly hyperosmotic to seawater.
C by migrating to freshwater rivers to drink fresh water.
D by water diffusion from seawater, which is hyperosmotic to the fluids in their cells.
E by selective transport of water molecules across the wall of the gut.

B

20

A human who has no access to fresh water but is forced to drink seawater instead

A will develop structural changes in the kidneys to accommodate the salt overload.
B will risk becoming overhydrated within 12 hours.
C will excrete more water molecules than taken in, because of the high load of ion ingestion.
D will find that drinking saltwater satiates his thirst.
E will thrive under such conditions, as long as he has lived at the ocean most of his life.

C

21

Ammonia is likely to be the primary nitrogenous waste in living conditions that include

A lots of seawater, such as a bird living in a marine environment.
B lots of seawater, such as a marine mammal (e.g., a polar bear).
C lots of fresh water flowing across the gills of a fish.
D a moist system of burrows, such as those of naked mole rats.
E a terrestrial environment, such as that supporting crickets.

C

22

Among vertebrate animals, urea

A is added to the air in the lungs to be exhaled, along with carbon dioxide.
B is made in the kidneys and immediately excreted.
C is made in the liver by combining two ammonia molecules with one carbon dioxide.
D is made in the pancreas and added to the intestinal contents, along with bile salts, for excretion.
E is rarely the nitrogenous waste of choice.

C

23

This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells where it is synthesized.

A anti-diuretic hormone
B aldosterone
C renin
D angiotensin II
E atrial natriuretic peptide

B

24

The structural component(s) of the mammalian nephron where the transcytosis of water increases due to the action of anti-diuretic hormone is/are the _____.

A Bowman's capsules
B afferent and efferent arterioles
C nephrons
D collecting duct
E glomeruli

D

25

In humans, the transport epithelial cells in the ascending loop of Henle
A have plasma membranes of low permeability to water.
B are the largest epithelial cells in the body.
C have 50% of their cell mass made of smooth endoplasmic reticulum.
D are not in contact with interstitial fluid.
E are not affected by high levels of nitrogenous wastes.

A

26

Urea is produced in the

A liver from glycogen.
B bladder from uric acid and H2O.
C kidneys from glycerol and fatty acids.
D liver from NH3 and CO2.
E kidneys from glucose.

D

27

The body fluids of an osmoconformer would be ________ with its ________ environment.

A hyperosmotic; saltwater
B hypoosmotic; saltwater
C isoosmotic; saltwater
D isotonic; freshwater
E hyperosmotic; freshwater

C

28

Compared to the seawater around them, most marine invertebrates are

A hypoosmotic and isoosmotic.
B hyperosmotic and isoosmotic.
C isoosmotic.
D hyperosmotic.
E hypoosmotic.

C

29

Materials are returned to the blood from the filtrate by which of the following processes?
A filtration
B excretion
C ultrafiltration
D selective reabsorption
E secretion

D

30

The filtrate in the renal pelvis enters directly from

A the collecting duct.
B the loop of Henle.
C Bowman's capsule.
D the glomerulus.
E the proximal tubule.

A

31

The filtrate in the proximal convoluted tubule of the human does not normally include

A glucose.
B ions.
C plasma proteins.
D dissolved gasses.
E amino acids.

C

32

Which of the following animals generally has the lowest volume of urine production?

A a marine bony fish
B a shark inhabiting freshwater Lake Nicaragua
C a salmon in fresh water
D a freshwater bony fish
E a vampire bat

A

33

Under the influence of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), _____ is produced.

A urine containing more glucose
B bloody urine
C urine containing a lower concentration of urea
D more concentrated urine
E Less concentrated urine

D

34

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) makes the _____ permeable to water.
A ascending portion of the loop of Henle
B collecting duct
C Bowman's capsule
D proximal tubule
E descending portion of the loop of Henle

B

35

Which of the following statements is true?

A The kidneys regulate water and blood glucose in terrestrial vertebrates.
B The kidneys are paired organs that regulate water and electrolyte balance
in terrestrial vertebrates.
C The kidneys are paired organs that remove nitrogenous wastes from the urine.
D Most humans have one kidney, which regulates water and electrolyte balance, removes nitrogenous wastes from the blood, and eliminates the wastes in the urine.

B

36

What is the basic functional unit of the kidney?

AThe renal corpuscle.
B The Malpighian tubule.
C The medulla.
D The nephron.

D

37

Which of the following represents the correct sequence of flow through the nephron?

A Renal corpuscle > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > distal tubule > collecting duct
B Distal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct > renal corpuscle > proximal tubule
C Renal corpuscle > loop of Henle > collecting duct > proximal tubule > distal tubule
D Renal corpuscle > distal tubule > proximal tubule > loop of Henle > collecting duct

A

38

Which regions of the nephron function independently of hormonal control for the most part?

A Renal corpuscle and collecting duct.
B Proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule.
C Renal corpuscle, proximal tubule, and loop of Henle.
D Distal tubule and collecting duct.

C

39

Aldosterone is _____.

A a protein hormone that decreases blood pressure without changing blood volume
B decreases water reabsorption in the kidneys
C is released in great quantities when ethanol intoxication takes place
D a steroid hormone that reduces the amount of fluid excreted in the urine
E triggers the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin II

D

40

Osmoregulatory adjustment via the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system can be triggered by

A severe sweating on a hot day.
B sleeping for one hour.
C eating a pizza with olives and pepperoni.
D eating a bag of potato chips.
E drinking several glasses of water.

A

41

When stimulated by aldosterone, the reabsorption of Na+ is increased along

A the glomerulus.
B Bowman's capsule.
C the distal tubule.
D the proximal tubule.
E the loop of Henle.

C

42

Passive Transport

1) down a concentration gradient
2) does not require energy from cells
3) osmosis

43

Active TransporT

1) against a concentration gradient
2) requires energy from cells
3) sodium-potassium pump

44

Descending the limb of the loop of Henle:

No energy required for transport
Epithelium always permeable to water
Numerous aquaporins (water channels) but almost no ion channels

45

Ascending the limb of the loop of Henle:

Passive transport of NaCl in the thin segment and active transport of NaCl in the thick segment
No aquaporins (water channels)

46

Collecting duct:

ct:
Hormones control permeability to water and transport of NaCl
Active transport of NaCl associated with loss of water from filtrate

47

Increases water absorption

ADH secretion, sweating, eating salty food, dehydration due to inadequate water intake

48

Increases both water and Na+ reabsorption

aldosterone release, blood loss, severe diarrhea

49

Does not increase water or Na+ reabsorption

diabetes insipdus, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption

50

The high osmolarity of the renal medulla is maintained by all of the following except

A active transport of salt from the upper region of the ascending limb.
B diffusion of salt from the thin segment of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle.
C diffusion of urea from the collecting duct.
D the spatial arrangement of juxtamedullary nephrons.
E diffusion of salt from the descending limb of the loop of Henle.

E

51

Osmoregulation and excretion are _____.

A chemical processes that completely stop during torpor and hibernation
B mechanisms for the homeostatic control of body temperature
C mechanisms that require continual water loss
D ways that animals control their external environment
E mechanisms that maintain volume and composition of body fluids

E

52

Select the correct statement about osmolarity.

A Osmolarity measures the moles of solute per liter of solution.
B If two solutions are separated by a selectively permeable membrane, water flows by osmosis from a hyperosmotic solution to a hypoosmotic one.
C The contents of an animal cell are hyperosmotic.

A

53

Select the correct statement describing the osmolarity of mammalian urine.

A Mammalian urine is always hyperosmotic to blood.
B The osmolarity of mammalian urine varies little between species
C The osmolarity of mammalian urine may vary over time.

C

54

What is the difference between a countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, and the countercurrent systems that maximize oxygen absorption by fish gills or reduce heat loss in endotherms?

A A countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, involves movement of ions rather than movement of oxygen or heat transfer.
B Unlike the other countercurrent systems, a countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, expends energy in active transport.
C A countercurrent multiplier system, such as the one involving the loop of Henle, includes a capillary bed.

B

55

Where and when does osmolarity of the filtrate increase?

A As the filtrate moves through the proximal tubule
B As the filtrate moves up to the cortex in the ascending limb of the loop
C As the filtrate moves down the descending limb of the loop of Henle

C

56

Compared to the seawater around them, most marine invertebrates are

A hyperosmotic and isoosmotic.
B hypoosmotic.
C isoosmotic.
D hyperosmotic.
E hypoosmotic and isoosmotic

C

57

As a result of the non-selectivity of the kidney's filtration of small molecules, _____.

A the kidneys have little control over body fluid composition
B useful substances must be selectively reabsorbed
C many useful substances are lost in the urine
D urine is always much less concentrated than blood
tE he proportions of all the substances in the blood are the same as in the urine

B

58

As filtrate moves down the loop of Henle, the surrounding interstitial fluid becomes _____ concentrated than the filtrate, so _____ leaves the filtrate.

A more ... urea
B less ... urea
C more ... water
D less ... water
E less ... water and urea

C

59

The most abundant solute in urine is _____.

A glucose
B water
C plasma proteins
D sodium chloride
E urea (and other nitrogenous wastes)

E

60

Glucose is removed from filtrate by _____
A secretion
B diffusion
C dialysis
D active transport
E osmosis

D

61

This renal-adjusting hormone cannot be stored within the cells where it is synthesized.

A aldosterone
B anti-diuretic hormone
C angiotensin II
D renin
E atrial natriuretic peptide

A

62

If ATP production in a human kidney was suddenly halted, urine production would
A increase, and the urine would be isoosmotic compared to plasma.
B decrease, and the urine would be isoosmotic compared to plasma.
C increase, and the urine would be hyperosmotic compared to plasma.
D decrease, and the urine would be hypoosmotic compared to plasma.
E come to a complete halt.

A


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