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CHAPTER 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue

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CHAPTER 11 Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue, Matching exam, fill in the blank exam, true-false exam, short answer exam, Clinical questions.

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Using Figure 11.1, match the following:
1) Which neuron would connect to a muscle?

2) Which neuron would be found in the retina of the eye?

3) Which neuron is a sensory neuron found in a reflex arc?

4) Which neuron is never myelinated?

5) Which neuron is rare?

6) In a reflex arc, which neuron has its cell body inside the spinal cord?

7) Which neuron is common only in dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord and sensory ganglia of
cranial nerves?

8) Which is by far the most common neuron type?

Using Figure 11.1, match the following:

1) Answer: A

2) Answer: B

3) Answer: C

4) Answer: B

5) Answer: B

6) Answer: A

7) Answer: C

8) Answer: A

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Using Figure 11.2, match the following:

9) Ion channel.

10) Synaptic vesicles.

11) Calcium ions.

12) Postsynaptic membrane.

13) Synaptic cleft.

Using Figure 11.2, match the following:

9) Answer: E

10) Answer: C

11) Answer: A

12) Answer: B

13) Answer: D


Match the following:

14) Neurotransmitters are
released at the ________.

15) The rough ER of the cell.

16) Receptive region of the

17) Conducting region of the

A) Nissl bodies
B) Dendrites
C) Axon
D) Axon terminal

14) D
15) A
16) B
17) C


Match the following:

18) Period during which the
neuron cannot respond to a
second stimulus, no matter
how strong.

19) The interior of the cell
becomes less negative due to
an influx of sodium ions.

20) The specific period during
which potassium ions diffuse
out of the neuron due to a
change in membrane

21) Also called a nerve impulse
transmitted by axons.

22) An exceptionally strong
stimulus can trigger a

A) Relative refractory period
B) Absolute refractory period
C) Repolarization
D) Action potential
E) Depolarization

18) B
19) E
20) C
21) D
22) A


Match the following:

23) Numerous nerve impulses
arriving at a synapse at
closely timed intervals exert a
cumulative effect.

24) Stimulation of a postsynaptic
neuron by many terminals at
the same time.

25) An insufficient stimulus.

26) Any stimulus below this
intensity will result in no
response in a neuron.

A) Temporal summation
B) Spatial summation
C) Threshold stimulus
D) Subthreshold stimulus

23) A
24) B
25) D
26) C


True/False Questions

1) The all-or-none phenomenon as applied to nerve conduction states that the whole nerve cell
must be stimulated for conduction to take place.

Answer: FALSE


2) Reflexes are rapid, automatic responses to stimuli.

Answer: TRUE


3) Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers.

Answer: TRUE


4) Saltatory conduction occurs because of the presence of salt (NaCl) around the neuron.

Answer: FALSE


5) Cell bodies of sensory neurons may be located in ganglia lying outside the central nervous

Answer: TRUE


6) Myelination of the nerve fibers in the central nervous system is the job of the oligodendrocyte.

Answer: TRUE


7) During depolarization, the inside of the neuronʹs membrane becomes less negative.

Answer: TRUE


8) Neurons in the CNS are organized into functional groups.

Answer: TRUE


9) Strong stimuli cause the amplitude of action potentials generated to increase.

Answer: FALSE


10) The oligodendrocytes can myelinate several axons.

Answer: TRUE


11) Enkephalins and endorphins are peptides that act like morphine.

Answer: TRUE


12) A synapse formed between the axon ending of one neuron and the cell body of another neuron
is called an axosomatic synapse

Answer: TRUE


13) In myelinated axons the voltage-regulated sodium channels are concentrated at the nodes of

Answer: TRUE


14) Action potentials can be generated by virtually all cells of the body because all cells possess
cell membranes.

Answer: FALSE


15) Voltage is always measured between two points and may be called the potential between these
two points.

Answer: TRUE


16) Neurons that are far away from the center of the neuron pool and that are not easily excited by
an incoming stimulus are in the discharge zone.

Answer: FALSE


17) Acetylcholine is not a biogenic amine.

Answer: TRUE


18) The two major classes of graded potentials are transmitter potentials and receptor potentials

Answer: FALSE


19) A graded potential that is the result of a neurotransmitter released into the synapse between
two neurons is called a postsynaptic potential.

Answer: TRUE


20) Large-diameter nerve fibers conduct impulses much faster than small-diameter fibers.

Answer: TRUE


21) The nodes of Ranvier are found only on myelinated, peripheral neural processes.

Answer: FALSE


22) Unipolar neurons have axons structurally divided into peripheral and central processes.

Answer: TRUE


23) A stimulus traveling toward a synapse appears to open calcium channels at the presynaptic
end, which in turn promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles to the axonal membrane.

Answer: TRUE


24) A positive feedback cycle is the main force in the generation of graded potentials at receptor

Answer: FALSE


25) If bacteria invaded the CNS tissue, microglia would migrate to the area to engulf and destroy

Answer: TRUE


Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions

1) That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the
skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system.

Answer: somatic


2) ________ are found in the CNS and bind axons and blood vessels to each other.

Answer: Astrocytes


3) A gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n) ________.

Answer: node of Ranvier


4) ________ law is the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance.

Answer: Ohmʹs


5) The synapse more common in embryonic nervous tissue than in adults is the ________.

Answer: electrical synapse


6) When information is delivered within the CNS simultaneously by different parts of the neural
pathway, the process is called ________ processing.

Answer: parallel


7) ________ potentials are short-lived, local changes in membrane potential that can be either
depolarized or hyperpolarized.

Answer: Graded


8) ________ is a disease that gradually destroys the myelin sheaths of neurons in the CNS,
particularly in young adults.

Answer: Multiple sclerosis (MS)


9) When one or more presynaptic neurons fire in rapid order it produces a much greater
depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane than would result from a single EPSP; this event
is called ________ summation.

Answer: temporal


10) ________ is a neurotransmitter of the CNS that is used by Purkinje cells of the CNS.

Answer: GABA (gamma aminobutyric acid)


11) Define neurotransmitter. Name two amino acid neurotransmitters, two catecholamines, and
two peptides.

Answer: Neurotransmitters are chemical signals used as a means of communication. GABA and
glycine are amino acid neurotransmitters; dopamine and norepinephrine are
catecholamines; and endorphin and enkephalin are peptide transmitters.


12) What function is served by the increased axon diameter at the nodes of Ranvier?

Answer: Increased diameter results in increased surface area on the membrane for sodium
channels. This results in increased speed of impulse propagation.


13) Imagine a neuron that has several hundred axonal knobs impinging on it. The majority of
these axonal knobs are shown to be ʺfiring.ʺ However, the neuron in question does not
transmit an impulse. Give a valid explanation of why this could occur.

Answer: Both excitatory and inhibitory potentials impinge on neurons. Inhibitory postsynaptic
potentials (IPSPs) are ʺfiring,ʺ but due to the neurotransmitter released and its action,
the postsynaptic neuron is inhibited from ʺfiringʺ (hyperpolarized).


14) Why does a hyperpolarization phase generally follow a repolarization phase in an action

Answer: Immediately after an action potential the potassium gates, being slow gates which do
not respond to change in the electrical charge, allow additional K+ ions to flood into the
cell. These K+ ions decrease the positive ion concentration momentarily below the
normal -70mV and thus hyperpolarize the cell.


15) What are the basic divisions of the peripheral nervous system?

Answer: Sensory and motor divisions. Motor has two divisions: the somatic and autonomic.
The autonomic has two divisions: the sympathetic and parasympathetic.


16) Since all action potentials are alike, how does the brain separate situations that require
immediate attention from ordinary ʺpositionalʺ reports?

Answer: The importance of a stimulus is derived from the number of stimuli received from the
same source. The frequency of impulse transmission indicates the stimulus intensity
and the brain responds appropriately.


17) How can a single axon respond to several different kinds of events?

Answer: Some axon terminals contain more than one kind of neurotransmitter. Therefore, the
axon can release one or more neurotransmitters simultaneously, creating singular or
multiple events.


18) ATP neurotransmitters have what basic effect on the body?

Answer: They provoke a sensation of pain.


19) How can potentially poisonous gasses like NO and CO be used by the body?

Answer: These gasses are neurotransmitters that act indirectly. Similar to hormones, NO and CO
promote longer-lasting effects by acting through intracellular second-messenger


Clinical Questions

1) Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease in which the myelin sheaths are destroyed. What process
does this interfere with and what would be the consequence?

Answer: Demyelination interferes with saltatory conduction, which would result in a slowing
down of nerve impulse propagation.


2) A client is admitted to the hospital with exacerbation of multiple sclerosis (MS). She asks the nurse,ʺWhy did this have to happen to me again? I was doing so well.ʺ Explain why some
forms of MS are characterized by periods of remission and exacerbation.

Answer: Even though someone is diagnosed with MS, the axons are not damaged. Growing numbers of sodium channels appear spontaneously in the demyelinated fibers so that conduction resumes, even if slower. This may account for the cycles of relapse and remission in different patients.


3) A client was admitted for depression. What should the nurse explain to the client regarding
the role of serotonin and depression?

Answer: Serotonin is a biogenic amine neurotransmitter widely distributed in the brain, where it plays a role in emotional behavior and helps to regulate the biological clock.


4) What symptoms would a nurse focus on in his or her care of a client with multiple sclerosis?

Answer: Visual disturbances, paralysis, and weakness


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