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Medical Terminology Ch. 13

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created 5 years ago by kategre18
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updated 5 years ago by kategre18

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1

afferent receptors

aka sensory receptors
detect changes that occur inside and outside the body and convey them to the brain

2

efferent receptors

send motor signals from the brain to muscles and glands to cause an effect

3

somatic nervous system

the part of the nervous system under conscious and voluntary control

4

autonomic nervous system

part of the nervous system that relates to involuntary or automatic body functions

5

central nervous system

the control system including the brain and spinal cord

6

peripheral nervous system

consists of various nerve processes that connect the brain and spinal cord with receptors, muscles, and glands

7

dendrites

transmit impulses to the cell body

8

axons

carry impulses away from the cell body

9

neuroglia

aka glia
the supporting tissue cells of the nervous system

10

hypothalamus

beneath the thalamus

11

meninges

three membranes of the brain

12

cerebrospinal fluid

provides additional protection for brain and spinal cord

13

chemoreceptors

nerve endings that detect chemicals

14

thermoreceptors

located immediately under the skin to detect changes in temp

15

photoreceptors

responsible for vision

16

lacrimal

pertaining to tears

17

lacrimation

refers to the production and discharge of tears

18

nasolacrimal ducts

carry tears to nasal cavity

19

cornea

convex, transparent structure at the front of the eyeball

20

retina

located in the posterior part of the eye & contains photoreceptors (cones & rods)

21

electroencephalography

the recording and analysis of the electrical activity of the brain

22

electroencephalogram

the record obtained from an electroencephalography

23

epidural hematoma

blood accumulates in the epidural space

24

subdural hematoma

accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater

25

intracerebral hematoma

bleeding that occurs within the brain

26

cerebrovascular accident

normal blood supply to the brain is disrupted
aka stroke

27

transient ischemic attack (TIA)

caused by a brief interruption in cerebral blood flow
refers to deficient blood circulation
symptoms include disturbance of normal vision, dizziness, weakness, and numbness

28

hydrocephalus

accumulation of fluid in the skull

29

akinesia

complete or partial loss of muscle movement

30

anesthesia

partial or complete loss of sensation with or without loss of consciousness

31

aphagia

inability or refusal to swallow

32

aphasia

an abnormal condition in which there is an absence or impairment of the ability to communicate through speech, writing, or signs

33

astigmatism

uneven curvature of the cornea or lens of the eye that prevents the sharp focus of an image on the retina

34

bradykinesia

abnormal slowness of movement or sluggishness of mental or physical processes

35

cephalalgia

headache

36

cerebral concussion

loss of consciousness, either temporary or prolonged, as a result of a blow to the head

37

cerebral contusion

bruising of brain tissue as a result of a head injury

38

cerebral hemorrhage

result of the rupture of a sclerosed, diseased, or injured blood vessel in the brain

39

cerebral palsy

brain disorder characterized by paralysis and lack of muscle coordination; results from developmental defects in the brain or trauma at birth

40

coma

state of unconsciousness from which the patient cannot be aroused, even by powerful stimulation

41

diplegia

paralysis affecting like parts on both sides of the body

42

diplopia

double vision, the perception of two images of a single object

43

dyslexia

inability to read, spell, and write words despite the ability to see and recognize letters

44

dysphagia

difficulty in swallowing, usually associated with obstruction or other disorder of the esophagus

45

dysphasia

speech impairment caused by a lesion in the brain; characterized by lack of coordination and failure to arrange words properly

46

electromyography

preparation, study, and interpretation of an electromyogram, a graphic record of the contraction of a muscle as a result of electrical stimulation

47

encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

48

encephalocele

hernial protrusion of brain substance through a congenital or traumatic opening of the skull; craniocele

49

encephalomalacia

softening of the brain

50

encephalomeningitis

inflammation of the brain and meninges

51

encephalopathy

any disease of the brain

52

epilepsy

group of neurological disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of convulsive seizures sensory disturbances, loss of consciousness, or all of these

53

glaucoma

abnormal condition of increased pressure within the eye

54

hemiplegia

paralysis on one side of the body

55

hyperkinesia

abnormally increased activity or motor function

56

hyperopia

farsightedness, an error in the refraction in which the rays of light entering the eye are brought to focus behind the retina

57

meniere disease

chronic disease of the inner ear characterized by recurrent episodes of dizziness

58

meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

59

meningocele

herniation of the meninges through a defect in the skull or vertebral column

60

multiple sclerosis

chronic CNS disease with progressive destruction of the myelin sheaths of the neurons. resulting scar tissue interferes with the normal transmission of nerve impulses

61

myasthenia gravis

disease characterized by muscle weakness and abnormal fatigue

62

myelitis

inflammation of the bone marrow or spinal cord

63

myelography

radiographic examination of the spinal cord by injection of a radiopaque medium

64

myopia

nearsightedness; a defect in the vision in which rays of light entering the eye are brought to focus in front of the retina

65

narcolepsy

chronic aliment involving sudden attacks of sleep that occur at intervals

66

neuralgia

pain along the course of a nerve

67

neuritis

inflammation of a nerve

68

neuropathy

any disease of the nerves

69

paraplegia

paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body

70

parkinson disease

chronic nervous disease characterized by a fine, slowly spreading tremor, muscular weakness, rigidity, and often a peculiar gait

71

quadriplegia

paralysis of all four extremities
aka tetraplegia

72

retinal detachment

separation of the retina from the back of the eye, usually resulting from a hole or tear in the retina

73

retinopathy

any disease of the retina

74

shingles

acute, infectious eruption of vesicles, usually on the trunk of the body along a peripheral nerve

75

tinnitus

subjective ringing of one or both ears

76

psychosis

refers to any major mental disorder characterized by a gross impairment in reality testing and often characterized by inappropriate mood and diminished impulse control

77

schizophrenia

a gross distortion of reality, disorganization, and fragmentation of though and emotional reaction, and withdrawal from social interaction

78

pyromania

an impulse control disorder characterized by an uncontrollable urge to set fires

79

Bipolar disorders

characterized by manic episodes, major depression, or mixed moods

80

clinical depression

an abnormal emotional state characterized by exaggerated feelings of sadness, despair, emptiness, and hopelessness

81

phobia

a persistent, irrational, intense fear of something specific, such as fear of fire, meeting strangers, or leaving the familiar setting of home

82

agoraphobia

intense, irrational fear of open spaces.

83

anorexia nervosa

eating disorder associated with emotional stress or conflict characterized by a prolonged refusal to eat resulting in wasting, emotional disturbance concerning body image and fear of becoming obese

84

neurasthenia

a nervous condition characterized by chronic weakness, fatigue, and sometimes exhaustion
sometimes follows depression

85

autism

characterized by withdrawal and impaired development in social interaction and communication

86

Alzheimer disease

progressive mental disorientation with several characteristics including confusion, memory failure, restlessness, and inability to carry out purposeful movement

87

craniotomy

any surgical opening into the skull

88

cranioplasty

surgical repair of the skull after surgery or injury to the skull

89

shunts

passages or bypasses between two vessels

90

stereotactic radiosurgery

involves closed-skull destruction of a target using ionizing radiation

91

neuroplasty

plastic surgery to repair a nerve or nerves

92

neurorrhapy

suturing of a cut nerve

93

neurolysis

release of a nerve sheath by cutting it longitudinally
surgery to break up adhesions surrounding a nerve
relief of tension on a nerve
disintegration of nerve tissue

94

analgesics

agents that relieve pain without causing loss of consciousness

95

hyponotics

drugs used as sedatives to produce a calming effect

96

transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS)

a method of pain control by the application of electrical impulses to the nerve endings

97

anticonvulsants

relieve or prevent convulsions


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