what are the three funcitons of the urinary system?
how does the urinary system help regulate blood volume and blood pressure?
how does the urinary system help regulate plasma ion concentration?
how does the urinary system help stabilize blood pH?
how does the urinary system conserve valuable nutrients?
what is the renal cortex? what color and texture is it?
where are the base and tip found
compare the nephron loop (loop of henle) of the cortical to the one of the juxtamedullary
what does the efferent arteriole of the cortical nephron do?
what are the two segments of the renal tubule and where are they located?
what kind of solutes enter capsular space during filtration?
what is reabsorption and where does it occur
what is the first segment of the renal tubule and where is the entrance to this segment?
describe the epithelial lining of PCT. what does it do?
what are the two limbs of the nephron loop? what does each contain?
what does the thick descending limb do? what is its function similar to?
where is the ascending limb? what does it do?
what are the thin segments permeable to? what dos the movement of this help?
where does the thick ascending limb end?
where are organic waste dissolved, when are they eliminated, and what does their removal include?
what are the three components of the membrane involved in glomerular filtration
what type of capillary are glomerular capillaries? what do their pores do?
what is glomerular filtration governed by?
what is glomerular hydrostatic pressure? what does it tend to do?
why is the hydrostatic pressure significantly higher than capillary pressure in systemic circuit.
where does blood leaving glomerular capillaries do? how does the diameter of this arteriole compare to the other
what does the efferent arteriole produce? what does this require?
what is capsular hydrostatic pressure? what does it do? what does it result from?
what is the net hydrostatic pressure?
what is colloid osmotic pressure?
what does blood colloid osmotic pressure tend to do?
what is net filtration pressure?
what is there a difference between at the glomerulus?
how much flitrate is generated in glomeruli each day? where is 99% of it reabsorbed?
wht three interacting levels control the GFR
what are the hormonal regulations of the GFR?
what three stimuli causes the juxtagloumerular complex to relesase renin?
what does angiotensin II activation do?
constricts efferent arterioles of nephron elevating glomerular pressure, stimulates reabsorption of sodium ions and water at PCT, stimulates secretion of aldosterone by adrenal cortex, stimulates thirst, and triggers release of ADH which stimulates reabsorption of water in distal portion of DCT and collecting system
what does angiotension II do?
was do the increase of sympathetic motor tone by angiotensin II cause to happen?
what does aldosterone do?
what are natriuretic peptides? what do they do?
where are natriuretic peptides released and when?
what are the two types of natriuretic hormones and where are they released?
where does reabsorption and secretion occur? what changes from segment to segment with these two things?
how much of the filtrate produced in the renl corpuscle does the PCT cells usually reabsorb? where does this reabsorbed material go?
what are the five functions of the PCT?
how do sodium ions enter tubular cells?
how does the nephron loop reabsorb around half the water and 2/3 of the sodium an chloride ions remaining in tubular fluid
what is countercurrent multiplication?
what does countercurrent refer to?
what does multiplication refer to?
what are the parallel segments of the nephron loop separated by? how do their characteristics compare?
describe the permeability to the thin descending limb
describe the permeability of the thick ascending limb. what does it contain?
what do sodium and chloride pumps do?
where does the concentrated solution arrive and what does it cause?
what does solute pumping at ascending limb cause?
where does contercurrent multiplication occur? what does it move and where does it move it?
describe the route for potassium ions.
describe the route for sodium and chloride ions.
what happens as tubular fluid flows along thin descending limb?
where are 2/3 of Na+ and Cl- in tubular fluid pumped out before reaching DCT causing the solute concentration to decline and why?
what is the rate of ion transport across thick ascending limb proportional to?
what does the regional difference in the ion transport rate cause?
what is the maximum solute concentration of peritubular fluid near the turn of the nephron loop? how much of this is from Na+ and Cl- pumped out of ascending limb? what is the remainder?
what are two benefits of contercurrent multiplication?
what is aldosterone and what all does it do?
what is produced by prolonged aldosterone stimulation and dangerously reduces plasma concentration?
what opposes secretion of aldosterone and its actions on DCT and collecting system?
what is contained in blood entering peritubular capillaries?
what causes the rate of K+ and H+ secretions to rise or fall and how?
what generates hydrogen ion secretions?
what does hydrogen ion secretion do? what causes it to accelerate?
what is acidosis and when does it develop?
what controls blood pH? what are these important to?
what is alkalosis? what can cause it?
what are the responses to acidosis?
what do PCT and DCT deaminate amino acids do?
what are some benefits of tubular deamination?
describe reabsorption and secretion at collecting ducts?
what does aldosterone control? what is it opposed by?
what is secreted in the collecting system and why?
what happens when there is a low pH in peritubular fluid.
what happens when there is a high pH in peritubular fluid.
how is water reabsorbed?
what does ADH cause to appear in apical cell membranes and why?
what does higher levels of ADH increase?
what happens if there is no ADH?
what causes DCT and collecting systems to always be permeable to water?
how much urine does a healthy aduly produce per day?
what is diuresis? what does it typically indicate?
what is the function of the vasa recta?
when does the osmotic concentration of blood to increase? what does it involve?
what does blood flowing toward the cortex do? what does it involve?
what does the vasa recta carry out of the medulla and why?
what are the seven steps of renal function
what happens during step two of renal function?
what happens during step three of renal function?what is there a reduction in and why?
what happens during step four of renal function? what accounts for a higher proportion of total osmotic concentration?
what happens during step five of renal function? what is adjusted and how?
what happens during step six of renal function? what is exposed here and what does it determine?