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chp. 28 reproductive

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1

which function of the reproductive system is solely a function of the female reproductive system?

d. development and nourishment of a new individual

2

what are the female gametes?

a. oocytes

3

the location of the testes and epidiymides in the scrotum

c. provides a temperature that is suitable for normal sperm development

4

contraction of the cremaster and dartos muscles

c. pull the testes closer to the body

5

optimum temperature for sperm production is 3 degrees cooler than body temperature. in which of the following locations would the testes produce the most sperm?

a. scrotal sac

6

which of the following structures is located with the perineum?

d. urogenital triangle

7

Sperm are produced in the

c. seminiferous tubules

8

the thick white capsule that covers each testes is called the

c. tunica albuginea

9

which of the following hormones is produced by the testis?

a. testosterone

10

the interstitial cells or Leydig cells

e. secrete testosterone

11

the opening in the abdominal wall through which he testes descend is the

c. inguinal canal

12

male infants can be born with an undescended testis. this means that the testis

d. remains in the abdominopelvic cavity

13

the sustentacular cells

c. provide nourishment for development of sperm

14

the blood-testis barrier

d. isolates sperm cells from the immune system

15

which of the following substances found in sustentacular cells may be the active hormones that promote sperm cell formation?

c. dihydrotestosterone and estrogen

16

which of the following cell types is formed at the end of the first meiotic division?

d. secondary spermatocyte

17

which of the following cell types is diploid?

c. primary spermatocyte

18

what process converts a spermatid to a mature sperm cell?

a. spermatogenesis

19

what structure contains enzymes needed by a sperm to penetrate an oocyte?

a. acrosome

20

which of the following structures would be found in the spermatic cord?

b. ductus defernes

21

which portion of the sperm cell is most involved with penetration of the female sex cell?

b. acrosome

22

sperm are produced in the ____ and complete maturation in the ____

d. seminiferous tubules, epididymis

23

a primary spermatocyte is a diploid cell that gives rise to two secondary spermatocytes after the first meiotic division. the primary speratocyte has

b. 46 chromosomes

24

which of the following is mismatched?

d. stereocilia-forms sperm tails

25

smooth muscle contractions help to propel sperm in the

b. ductus deferens

26

the duct from the seminal vesicle joins the ductus deferens to form the

d. ejaculatory duct

27

arrange the following structures in the order sperm would pass through them from the seminiferous tubules to the urethra

e. 5, 2, 3, 1, 4

28

the ductus deferens

d. passes through the inguinal canal and enters the pelvic cavity

29

the male urethra

b. extends through the length of the penis

30

in males, both urine and male reproductive fluids travel through

b. urethra

31

circumcision is the surgical removal of the

a. prepuce

32

erection of the penis occurs when

d. penile erectile tissue becomes engorged with blood

33

the spongy urethra is surrounded by the

c. corpus spongiosum

34

which of the following statements is false

a. the seminal vesicles open into the membranous urethra

35

the accessory glands located near the membranous urethra are the

c. bulbourethral glands

36

semen is

c. sperm cells plus the secretions of accessory glands

37

most of the seminal fluid is produced

b. by the seminal vesicles

38

discharge of semen into the prostatic urethra is called

b. emission

39

the forceful expulsion of semen from the urethra caused by contraction of smooth muscle in the urethra and skeletal muscle surrounding the base of the penis is called

a. ejaculation

40

which of the following glands is correctly matched with its function

a. seminal vesicles- provide nutrients for sperm

41

given the following glands, choose the arrangement that represents the order in which the glands release their secretions to form semen.

c. 3, 1, 2

42

which of the following substances found in semen is mismatched with its function

d. prostaglandins- cause urethral contractions

43

the longest portion of the male urethra is

c. spongy urethra

44

the penis consists of ____ columns of erectile tissue

b. three

45

which of the following is mismatched

b. corpora cavernosa- forms the foreskin

46

which of the following substances are found in the secretions of the prostate gland?

c. fibrinolysin and clotting factors

47

the secretions produced by the prostate gland

d. constitute about 30% of the semen

48

a blood test for the prostate- specific antigen (PSA) is useful in the diagnosis of

c. prostatic cancer

49

a pituitary tumor interferes with FSH secretion. how could the effect a male?

b. he would not produce sperm

50

Luteinizing hormone (LH) binds to interstitial cells and

e. increases testosteorne production by the Leydig cells

51

a lack of testosterone production before birth would

a. inhibit normal development of male reproductive structures

52

once GnRH is released from the hypothalamus and enters the hypothalamohypophysial portal system

d. FSH and LH secretion will occur

53

which of the following hormones stimulates the synthesis of testosterone by the fetal testes?

a. human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

54

what is the active hormone in target tissues of testosterone such as the penis

d. dihydrotestosterone

55

the major factor controlling the onset of puberty in males is

d. the hypothalamus becoming less sensitive to the inhibitory effects of androgens

56

which of the following statements concerning testosterone is true?

c. it can lead to an increase in muscle mass

57

which of the following effects on the body can not be attributed to testosterone

d. increased calcium excretion

58

which of the following is not an age-related change in the male reproductive system?

d. decline of sperm production until no more sperm are produced

59

which of the following is not an age-related change of the female reproductive system?

d. decreased incidence of breast cancer

60

the contraceptive method in which the penis is removed from the vagina just before ejaculation is called

c. coitus interruptus

61

the contraceptive method that not only prevents fertilization but also provides protection against sexually transmitted disease is

a. the condom

62

which of the following can cause infertility in femaleS?

c. blockage of the uterine tubes

63

in an ectopic pregnancy,

b. implantation does not occur in the uterus

64

the female climacteric refers to the

b. time from the onset of irregular menstrual cycles to cessation of those cycles

65

hot flashes during the climacteric are thought to be results of decreased ____ levels

c. estrogen and progesterone

66

which of the following hormones is detected by over-the-counter pregnancy kits?

d. human chorionic gonadotropin

67

implantation

b. normally occurs in the uterus

68

fertilization usually occurs in the _____ while fetal development occurs in the ______

b. uterine tube, uterus

69

the corpus luteum

e. degenerates into the corpus alibicans if pregnancy does not occur, is absolutely necessary during the first three months of pregnancy, and produces mostly progesterone, but also some estrogen

70

the placenta produces both

a. estrogen and progesterone

71

the ovum is viable for _____ hours following ovulation

c. 24

72

spermatozoa may remain viable in the female reproductive tract for as long as

e. 144 hours

73

fertilization can only occur

b. when a sperm cell penetrates a secondary oocyte

74

during the female sex act,

a. the clitoris becomes engorged with blood

75

sexual drives in females

d. is dependent on hormones, can be affected by psychological factors, is influenced by androgens that affect the hypothalamus

76

assume a couple has just completed intercourse and sperm have been deposited in the woman's reproductive tract. trace the pathway of the sperm through the female reproductive tract to the point where fertilization will most likely occur

b. 4, 1, 3, 2

77

normally, menstruation occurs when

e. blood levels of both female hormones decrease rapidly

78

menstrual cramps are most commonly caused by

increased prostaglandin secretions

79

which of the following statements is false?

rising progesterone levels cause the myometrium to contract

80

which of the following events happens after ovulation?

a negative feedback effect on GnRH

81

progesterone

d. causes cellular hypertrophy in the endometrium

82

during the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle, you would normally expect

c. the highest levels of progesterone that occur during the menstrual cycle

83

the gradual increase in estrogen secretion during the follicular phase is the result of

b. granulosa cells coverting androgens to estrogen

84

which of the listed evens occurs last?

c. ovulation occurs

85

the hormone hCG is necessary to

d. keep the corpus luteum from degenerating

86

FSH

b. primarily effects granulosa cells

87

FSH can make the follicle cells more sensitive to LH by increasing

c. LH receptors

88

the androgens produced by the theca interna cells are converted to estrogen by

c. granulosa cells

89

shortly after ovulation,

a. the granulosa cells become corpus luteum cells

90

the hypothalamic hormone that regulates both male and female reproductive cycles is

c. GnRH

91

which of the following events is caused by LH?

a. stimulation of the theca interna cells to produce androgens

92

one hormone responsible for initiating the development of follicles

c. FSH

93

the LH surge initiates

b. ovulation

94

which of the following events in the menstrual cycle occur at the same time?

d. uterine wall begins to thicken and increased estrogen production by the follicles

95

the average menstrual cycle is about ____ days long; ovulation occurs on about day ___

b. 28; 14

96

the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is characterized by

b. rapid development of ovarian follicles

97

the menstrual cycle can be divided into three continuous phases. starting from the first day of the cycle, their consecutive order is

a. menses, proliferative, secretory

98

which of the following statements concerning the female mammary glands is true?

e. all of these choices are correct

99

puberty in a female is characterized by

a. fat deposition in the breasts and around the hips

100

menarche refers to

d. the first episode of menstrual bleeding

101

both the vagina and the urethra open into a space called the

c. vestibule

102

the secretory sacs of the mammary glands are known as the

b. alveoli

103

frequently during childbirth, an episiotomy is performed. in this procedure the ____ is cut

b. perineum

104

which of the following is a function of the vagina?

b. reception of penis during intercourse

105

which of the following portions of the vulva is most superior?

b. mons pubis

106

which of the following pairs is mismatched?

d. mons pubis- vaginal orfice

107

which of the following statements concerning the uterine tube is true?

b. the oocyte is moved along the tube by peristaltic contractions of the muscular layer

108

the layer of the uterine wall that is shed during menstruation is the

d. endometrium

109

which of the following pairs is correctly matched?

b. broad ligaments- helps support the uterus

110

trace the pathway of an egg as it passes through the uterine tube

d. 2, 3, 1, 4,

111

a pap test is used to detect

c. cervical cancer

112

the cervix is a portion of the

e. uterus

113

the corpus luteum is a gland that

e. forms from a Graafian follicle after ovulation and secretes mainly progesterone

114

which of the following follicular stages is the last to appear?

a. corpus albicans

115

which of the following statements concerning the uterus is true?

a. the inferior portion is the cervix

116

fertilization occurs when the

d. nuclei of the secondary oocyte and the sperm cell unite

117

zygote is the term used to describe the

d. fertilized oocyte

118

follicles in the ovary that are never ovulated

a. undergo atersia

119

the release of the secondary oocyte from the ovary is called

a. ovulation

120

which of the following is produced in the ovary and then leaves the ovary?

c. secondary oocyte

121

the secondary oocyte completes the second meiotic division when

b. it is penetrated by a sperm cell

122

as a secondary follicle enlarges

c. a theca or capsule is formed around it

123

in a mature follicle, the oocyte lies in a mass of follicular cells called the

d. cumulus mass

124

a follicle containing a secondary oocyte and a single fluid filled antrum is called a ____ follicle

b. Graafian or mature

125

of the two million primary oocytes in the ovaries at birth, only about ____ are ovulated

b. 400

126

a primary oocyte with a single layer of granulosa cells is most appropriately called

a. a primordial follicle

127

a primary follicle contains

c. several layers of granulosa cells

128

the ovaries and uterus are held in position within the pelvis by bands of tissue called

d. ligaments

129

the ovary is attached to the superior margin of the uterus by the

c. ovarian ligament

130

the ovary is surronded by a capsule of fibrous connective tissue called the

b. tunica albuginea

131

arrange the following events in correct sequence

b. 2,3,1

132

which of the following events in the male sex act occurs last and results in ejaculation?

b. contractions of skeletal muscle at the base of the penis

133

what is the role of NO (nitric oxide) in the male sex act?

a. dilation of blood vessels in the penis

134

which of the following events occurs in an erection?

b. engorgement of erectile tissue of penis with blood

135

impotence occurs when

c. an erection cannot be achieved or maintained

136

arrange the following events in the correct sequence

c. 3,2,1

137

which of the following hormones would decrease if an adult male were castrated?

d. testosterone

138

following ejaculation, a phase called resolution occurs. during resolution

b. a feeling of satisfaction occurs

139

erection and ejaculation can be initiated by

a. manual stimulation of the penis


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