Biology Final Exam

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Biology: Concepts and Investigations
Chapters 2-10, 13, 15, 18, 20, 29, 30, 34, 37
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1

What are the building blocks of proteins?

Amino Acids

2

What happens when monomers are joined?

1 water is released. *monomers joing, 1 less water is given off; 13 join, 12 water is given off*

3

What are the 5 properties of water?

1-Versatile Solvent
2- H2O molecules are cohesive (hydrogen bonds)
3- Temperature of liquid H2O rises and falls slower than other liquids
4-Tends to remain a liquid
5-Frozen H2O is less dense

4

pH

potential hydrogen

5

The pH scale

0-14; measure of hydrogen ion concetration in a solution

6

Numbers of Acidic, Basic, and Neutral?

0-7: Acidic
7: Neutral
7-14: Basic

7

A change in 1 pH unit= a ____ fold change in the hydrogen ion concetration

10

8

Differentiate between saturated and unsaturated fats

Saturated: solid at room temperature, have all the hydrogen it can hold, no double bonds
Unsaturated: liquid at room temperature, double bonds, contains less hydrogen and has kinks

9

Nucleus

largest organelle; contains DNA; control center of the cell

10

Ribosome

Make proteins

11

Chloroplast

Where photosynthesis takes place

12

Mitochondria

Makes ATP, powerhouse of the cell

13

Lysosome

Digestive organelle; contain hydrolytic enzymes

14

Golgi bodies

Invovled in modification, packaging, and secretion

15

Endoplasmic Reticulum

System of internal membranes
Smooth:makes lipids
Rough:has ribosomes; makes proteins to be exported from cell

16

Solute and Solvent

Solute is substance dissolved; Solvent is what the solute dissolves into (most common solvent is H2O)

17

Diffusion

Movement of solute from high concentration to low concentration

18

Osmosis

Movement of H2O from more to less H2O across a membrane

19

Define Energy

The ability to do work

20

First Law of Thermodynamics

Energy cannot be created, or destroyed within the universe

21

Second Law of Thermodynamics

No energy conversion is 100% efficient

22

Energy transformation in photosynthesis

The sun's energy is captured to produce chemical nutrient energy (food) for plants

23

Energy transformation in cellular respiration

chemical nutrient energy (food) converted into ATP for every living thing

24

Why is ATP the energy source of cells?

It is the "energy currency" of teh cell. COntain high energy phosphate bonds
Has one 5 carbon sugar; ribose, nitrogenous base (adenine) and 3 phosphate groups. *Adenine triphosphate*

25

Enzymes

An organic molecule that catalyzes (speeds up) a chemical reaction without being consumed.

26

3 ways an enzyme's activity can be altered

1- Temperature
2- pH
3- Pharmaceutical Drugs

27

Electromagnetic Spectrum (short wavelength; high energy, to long wavelength; low energy)

Gamma-> X-ray -> Ultra Violet -> Visible -> Infrared -> TV -> Radio

28

Which part of the spectrum is used in photosynthesis?

Visible light

29

Does chlorophyll reflect or absorb green light?

It reflects green light, and absorbs red and blue very strongly

30

Give the equation for photosynthesis

6CO2 + 6H2O -> C6H12O6 + 6O2
carbon dioxide + water =sugar + oxygen

31

Describe the light Reaction

Requires light; occurs in teh thylakoids
Captures sun's energy and produces NADPH and ATP

32

Describe the Dark Reaction

Can occur day or night (doesn't require light); occurs in the stroma
Reduces CO2 to sugar, using ATP and NADPH; involves the Calvin Cycle

33

Photosynthetic process of light reaction

Light is absorbed in Photosystem 2; the energy of teh sunlight activates electron's to jump to the electron acceptors; these electrons pass through the electron transport chain and enter Photosystem 1 where sunlight activates the electrons which go to another electron acceptor and reduces NADP to NADPH.

34

Photosynthetic process of the Dark Reaction

Carbon Dioxide eneters plant and joins with RuBP; forms unstable 6 carbon compound which splits into 2 PGA's; the 2 PGA's are reduced to 2PGAL's using ATP and NADPH; some PGAL goes off as sugar and the rest goes back to RuBP

35

Aerobic Respiration

-With oxygen
-Glycolysis
-Transisiton reaction
-Kreb's cycle-Electron Transport

36

Anaerobic Respiration

-Without oxygen
-Glycolysis
-Fermentation

37

Kreb's Cycle

Activated Acetate (Acetyl CoA) + C4 = Citric Acid

38

Transition Reaction

Pyruvic acid to Activated Acetate (Acetyl CoA)

39

Glycolysis

Glucose to Pyruvic Acid

40

Electron Transport

NADH and FADH coverted to ATP

41

Grand Total of ATP produced in Aerobic Cellular Respiration

38

42

2 problems with Anaerobic Respiration

-Makes less ATP
-End product is toxic to cells

43

Karyotype

A size-ordered chart of all the chromosomes in a cell. 46 chromosomes are arranged in 23 pairs; the mother and father each contributed one member of each pair

44

Define Mitosis

Nuclear division in which daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes as mother cell.

45

Steps of Mitosis

Prophase: Chromatin cndenses to chromosomes. Spindle fibers form; nuclear envelope breaks down, nucleus disappears
Metaphase:Chromosomes line up in the middle
Anaphase:Chromatids seperate
Telophase:Nucleolus reappears;nuclear envelope reappears; chromosomes turn back to chromatin

46

How many daughter cells are produced during mitosis?

2

47

Cell Cycle

M= Mitosis & Cytokinesis (cell division)
G1= Growth; cell grows in size
S= Synthesis; synthesis of DNA
G2= Production of enzymes needed for mitosis

48

Define Meiosis and why it is important

It is nuclear division in which daughter cells have 1/2 the number of chromososmes and 1/2 the amount of DNA as mother cells.
It is important because it generates variability and is essential for sexual reproduction

49

Stages of Meiosis

Prophase 1: homologous chromosomes match up, then crossing over occurs
Metaphase 1: homologous chromosomes line up
Anaphase 1: homologoues chromosomes seperate
Telophase 1:Cells are haploid; but have too much DNA
*no further DNA replication*
Prophase 2:New spindles form
Metaphase 2: Sister chromatids line up
Anaphase 2: Sister chromatids sperate
Telophase 2:Formation of 4 haploid cells

50

Genetics

The study of inheritance of biological traits

51

Alleles

Alternate forms of a gene

52

Homozygous

2 of the same alleles

53

Heterozygous

2 different alleles

54

Dominant Alleles

Allele that expresses itself if present

55

Recessive Alleles

Allele covered/hidden if dominant allele is present

56

Genotype

Genetic make-up of organism (big R, little r)*genetic*

57

Phenotype

Expression of the genes (color, height) *physical*

58

Monohybrid Cross

card image

A mating between two individuals that are both heterozygous for the same gene

59

Dihybrid Cross

card image

A mating between individuals that are each heterozygous for two genes

60

Incomplete Dominance

Neither allele masks the presence of another *blend*

61

Co Dominance

Neither allele masks another (sickle cell animia)

62

Multiple Alleles

A gene with three or more possible alleles that can yielf many phenotypes. (Blood types)

63

Linkage group

All of the genes on one specific chromosome

64

Sex linked traits

The sex chromosomes carry genes. The genese located on non homologous areas of the x chromosome are said to be sex linked. It is possible for a single recessive allele to be expressed in males because there is nothing on the y chromosome to cover it up. Ex. Hemophilia and red-green color blindness

65

Sex influenced traits

Traits not associated with sex chromosomes that are expressed differently in teh two genders due to hormonal differences Ex. male pattern baldness

66

Genes

A section of DNA that codes for a specific trait

67

Chromosomes

DNA wrapped around proteins (histones)

68

DNA is the genetic material

Each strand provides the model for a new strand

69

The structure of DNA

Doxyribose
DOuble Stranded "Double Helix"
A,T,C,G

70

Complimentary base pairs of DNA

Adenine (A) -Uracil (U)
Cytosine (C)-Guanine (G)
Guanine (G) -Cytosine (C)
Thymine (T) - Adenine (A)

71

How does DNA produce the inheirited traits we recognize?

DNA dictates protein structure (tells cells what proteins to make)

72

The structure of RNA

Ribose
Single Stranded
A,U,C,G

73

Protein Synthesis

Each mRNA codon codes for a specific amino acid

74

Each codon is made up of __ bases

3

75

Where does protein synthesis occur?

At the Ribosomes

76

Order of the Taxanomic System beginning with Kingdom

Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species

77

How to correctly write a scientific name

Binomial Nomenclature
genus, species
First name capitalized and underlined if italics can't be used

78

Archaeobacteria

Prokaryotic, unicellular, most live in extreme climates

79

Eubacteria

Prokaryotic, unicellular

80

Protista

Unicellular, simple multicellular

81

Fungi

Eukaryotic, multicellular, absorb food

82

Plantae

Eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthesis

83

Animalia

Eukaryotic, multicellular, ingest

84

Parasitic Symbiosis

One benefits, other is harmed

85

Mutualistic Symbiosis

Both benefit

86

Commensalistic

One benefits, other is unaffected

87

Structure of a virus

Protein and a nucleic acid

88

Advantages and Disadvantages of plants being on land

Advantages: More light available, more carbon dioxide, and no competition/no predators
Disadvantages: water is hard to obtain & easily lost through evaporation, water is not available for reproduction and support-air is 800 times less dense than water and does not provide support

89

What did land plants evolve from?

Green Algae

90

Adaptions of land plants

Phloem:Transports food for the plant-transports down
Xylem: transports water for the plant-transports up
Cuticle:waxy covering that prevents water loss through the leaves
Stomata: tiny pores in the leaves that allow for gas exchange

91

Contrast Angiosperms and Gymnosperms

Angiosperms have flowers or fruit
Gymnosperms don't produce flowers or fruit but produce pollen ex. pine trees

92

Porifera

Ex. Sponge
no true tissue, radial or no symmetry, pores, sessile

93

Coelenterata

Ex. Hydra, jellyfish, Portuguese man-of-war
diploblastic, radial symmetry, meatocysts and nerve net

94

Mollusca

Ex. Snail, Clam, Squid
Triploblastic, bilateral, soft body with mantle that might secrete a shell

95

Arthropod

Ex. Shrimp, crabs, insects, spiders
Triploblastic, bilateral, jointed appendages, expskeleton, segmentation

96

Echinodermata

Ex. starfish, sand dollar, sea cucumber
Triploblastic, adult radial but larvae bilateral, water vascular system, tube feet, 5 part body plan

97

Chordata

Ex. Sharks, frogs, rays, whales
Triploblastic mouth and anus, bilateral, jointed appendages, endoskeleton

98

Is the Portugues man-of-war a jellyfist?

No

99

What was the first terrestrial vertebrate?

Class Amphibia: Frog, caecilians, salamanders

100

Montremes

Ex. duck-biled platypus
Lay eggs

101

Marsupials

Ex. kangaroo
Complete development in pouch

102

Placentals

Ex. Humans, rodents
Young is ttached to mom by umbilical cord and develops inside mother

103

Arteries

take blood away from heart, under pressure, strongest of our blood vessels

104

Caplillaries

where exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste occur, 1 cell layer thick, smallest and most numerous of our blood vessels

105

Veins

Return blood to the heart, contain valves to prevent backflow

106

The heartbeat is initiated by the ______ node (pacemaker), hich initiates a wave of excitation that contacts the ______ node

a) Sinoatrial Node
b) Atrioventricular Node

107

Which ventricle in teh heart is more muscular? Why?

The Left Ventricle: it has to pump blood to the entire body

108

Systolic Pressure

Pressure taken when ventricles contract; force of ventricles pushing blood

109

Dyastolic Pressure

pressure taken when ventricles relax; resistance of blood vessels

110

Erythrocytes

Red blood cells; transport oxygen; carry more than 1, max is 1 billion

111

Leukocytes

White blood cells; fight infection or foreign invader

112

Thrombocytes

Platelets; invovled in clotting

113

Which blood is the universal donor?
Which blood is the universal recipient?

Donor: O
Recipient: AB

114

Trachea

windpipe; supported by C-shaped cartilege rings, lined with cilia that constantly beat upward to push dust into throat

115

Bronchi

branch off trachea and lead to bronchioles

116

Bronchioles

branch off bronchi and lead to alveoli

117

Alveoli

Tiny sacs surrounded by vast network of caplillaries, where exchange of gases occur

118

Inhalation

Diaphrgm muscle contracts and moves lower; rib muscles contract and pull outward; volume of thoracic cavity increases; pressure decreases. Air gets warmed, filtered, and humidified

119

Exhalation

Diaphragm relaxes and moves back up, rib muscles relax and close inward. Volume decreased, pressure increased.

120

The chief organ of breathing

Diaphragm

121

Respiratory pigments

Adaption that increases amount of oxygen that can be transported by our blood
hemoglobin: made up of 4 protein chains

122

The breathing rate is controlled mainly by the partial pressure of which gas?

Carbon Dioxide

123

Two ways carbon dioxide is transported in the blood

1- Combined with hemoglobin: small amount of CO2 will combine with hemoglobin after it releses O2
2- As bicarbonate ions: majority of CO2 travels as bicarbonate ions

124

Erythroblastis Fetalis

Mom= Rh -
Dad= Rh +

125

Asexual Reproduction

involved 1 parent organism, offspring identical to parent:
Regeneration
Budding

126

Sexual Reproduction

Union of 2 haploid cells to produce diploid zygote; allows for more genetic variation

127

why are the testes are located outside the body?

The sperm would get mutated at body temperature

128

Which 2 hormones cause ovulation during the menstrual cycle?

LH and FSH

129

Which 2 hormones prepare the lining of the uterus for a fertilized egg?

Estrogen and Progesterone

130

Where does fertilization occur?

Fallopian tubes/Oviducts

131

Where does implantation occur?

Uterus

132

Differentiation

Refers to the process by which similar looking cells of developing embryo give rise to all different cells in body. This does not occur rom the shuffling out of genes, rather from the expression of different genes in different cells. The path is already determined

133

Induction

The complex interaction in which 1 cell alters the fate of the next. explains the orderly, stepwise development of an embryo

134

Cleavage

fertilized egg bgins to divide; dividing into smaller and smaller cells; uneven distribution of cytoplasm

135

Blastula

Cells arrange themselves to create a fluid filled space

136

Gastrulation

Cells rearrange creating distinct layers

137

Neurulation

Beginning of the 3rd week after conception; neural tube and head begin to develop

138

Organogenesis

End of the 3rd week after conception; the major organ systems are all forming, heart begins to pulsate

139

A) Parturation
B)Lanugo
C)Episiotomy
D)Vernix Cesesa

A) "birth"
B) fine, downy like hair on baby
C)An incision made in vaginal tissue to prevent tearing
D) waxy covering on baby

140

Differentiate between Batesian and Mullerian Mimicry

Batesian: non-dangerous looks like dangerous specied
Mullerian: 2 dangerous species resemble eachother

141

Differentiate between Species, Population, and Community

Species: a group of individuals that can mate successfully in nature
Population: a group of individuals belonging to the same species
Community:Made up of interacting populations

142

Explain Competitive exclusion principles and resource partitioning

a) Competitive exclusion principles: 2 species competing for the same limited resource cannot coexist in nature
b) Resource partioning: divides the resources and decreased competition between the species

143

Cryptic colortion and Aposematic Coloration

Cryptic: camoflage
Aposematic: warning coloration

144

Two defenses for plants and animals

Plant defenses: physical defense (thorns), chemical defense (toxin, bitter taste)
Animal defenses: Cryptic coloration (camoflage), aposematic colloration (warning coloration)

145

Producer and Consumer

Producer: make their own food
Consumer: eat others

146

Autotroph and heterotroph

Autotroph:producer- make own food
Heterotroph: consumer- eat others


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