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chp. 26 urinary

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created 5 years ago by marymargaret
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1

where do the ureters enter the urinary bladder

d. the posterolateral surface

2

what part of the urinary bladder expands very little during bladder filling?

b. the trigone

3

what muscle is responsible for contraction of the urinary bladder during mucturition?

d. detrusor muscle

4

what type of tissue is responsible for the expansion of the urinary bladder during filling?

a. transitional epithelium

5

why is the external urinary sphincter under conscious control?

c. it is made of skeletal muscle

6

how much urine would be in the urinary bladder to increase the pressure to an uncomfortable point?

d. 500 mL

7

voluntary micturition

a. involves higher brain centers

8

which of the following statements concerning the micturition reflex is false?

c. efferent signals are sent to the bladder by sympathetic fibers in the pelvic nerve

9

with aging, a loss of inhibitory action potentials to the sacral region of the spinal cord results in

d. uncontrollable micurition

10

in glomerular nephritis, proteins and white blood cells enter the filtrate resulting in

d. increased urine output

11

which of the following conditions is characterized by inflammation of the renal medulla?

a. pyelonephritis

12

which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the kidneys?

d. a marked decrease in the ability to maintain homeostasis

13

urea and mannitol are examples of which of the following types of diuretics?

a. osmotic diuretics

14

diuretics that work by reducing H+ secretion and the reabsorption of HCO3- ions are classified as

d. carbonic anhydrase inhibitors

15

urine flows through the ureters to the bladder as the result of

d. peristaltic contractions

16

when the tubular maximum for a substance is exceeded

e. the excess remains in the urine

17

if the tubular maximum for a particular amino acid is 200 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 100 mg/100 ml, the amino acid

b. will be completely reabsorbed by the tubule cells

18

diuretics that inhibit sodium ion reabsorption are called

c. thiazide diuretics

19

drug companies use which of the following to help them calculate the duration of action of a medication?

a. plasma clearance

20

renal blood flow per minute can be calculated if you know the clearance calculation for ____ as well as the person's hematocrit

b. PAH

21

tubular load refers to the amount of a given substance that

b. passes through the filtration membrane into the nephron each minute

22

to calculate plasma clearance of any substance, it is necessary to know the

e. quantity of urine produced per minute, the concentration of the cleared substance in the urine, and the concentration of the cleared substance in the blood

23

a substance used to calculate plasma clearance must

a. pass freely through the filtration membrane of the renal corpuscle

24

decreased plasma clearance can indicate

b. renal failure

25

stretch receptors in the atria are responsible for the secretion of

d. atrial natriuretic hormone

26

increased secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone results in

b. increased urine output

27

a substance that is useful for determining the plasma clearance rate of the kidney is

c. inulin

28

put the following in the correct order after the blood pressure increases

d. 3, 1, 5, 2, 4

29

what macula densa cells experience increased Na+ concentration in the filtrate, they respond by

c. decreasing renin secretion

30

decreased blood pressure in the afferent arterioles results in

a. increased renin secretion

31

intense sympathetic stimulation of the kidney

c. decreases renal flow

32

if extracellular fluid osmolality is 385 mOsm/kg, the kidneys will increase reabsorption of

b. water

33

blood loss that occurs during surgery will stimulate cells in the

d. juxtaglomerular apparatus

34

ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts by

c. incorporating aquaporin-2 channels into the apical membrane

35

atrial natriretic hormone

d. is secreted when atrial blood pressure increases

36

autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of

a. constriction of afferent arterioles

37

aldosterone exerts its effect on the kidney tubules by

d. increasing the synthesis of the transport proteins for sodium

38

lasix is a diuretic that blocks the reabsorption of sodium in the ascending loop of Henle. the result is giving this drug would

a. increased urine output

39

consumption of alcohol increases urine production by

c. inhibiting the release of ADH from the posterior pituitary

40

which of the following is not an action of angiotensin II?

d. decreases peripheral resistance

41

increased aldosterone causes increased

c. potassium secretion

42

aldosterone targets cells in the

c. distal convoluted tubule

43

renin converts

c. angiotensinogen to angiotensin I

44

the kidneys produce renin when

c. the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole decreases

45

angiotensin II

b. stimulates aldosterone secretion

46

removal of the posterior pituitary will immediately cause

b. an increase in urine output

47

a 15% increase in blood pressure would result in which of the following changes in ADH secretion?

b. decreased secretion

48

the juxtaglomerular apparatus secretes

a. renin

49

which of the following situations increases the number of action potentials to the supraoptic regions of the hypothalamus?

c. increased plasma osmolality

50

decreased ADH levels results in urine high in

b. water content

51

diabetes insipidus is the result of decreased

ADH production

52

filtrate reabsortion, which occurs regardless of the concentration and volume of urine produced, is referred to as

b. obligatory

53

urine concentration and volume depend on water reabsorption in the

e. distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

54

some lung cancers secrete large amounts of ADH. this causes increased water reabsorption in the

c. distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts

55

the kidney dialysis machine is an example of a mechanical

b. countercurrent system

56

by the time filtrate reaches the tip of the loop of Henle, ____ of the filtrate has been reabsorbed

c. 80%

57

the filtrate that drips from the renal papillae into the calyces

d. has a higher concentration of waste products (urea) than the original filtrate, may have lost up to 99% of its original waste, and is called urine

58

starting from the collecting duct, indicate the order in which urea molecules move to maintain the medullary concentration gradient

e. 4, 3, 5, 1, 2

59

which of the following statements is true?

b. solutes are actively transported from the ascending limb

60

which structure removes excess water and solutes from the kidneys medullary interstitial fluid?

d. vasa recta

61

which of the following helps maintain a high solute concentration in the kidney medulla?

e. all of these choices are correct

62

which of the following would help maintain the medullary concentration gradient?

b. urea movement from the collecting duct to medullary interstitial fluid

63

the countercurrent multiplier system

e. has fluid flowing in parallel tubes in opposite directions and maintains the solute concentration of the medullary interstitial fluid

64

a countercurrent mechanism is in

e. both the loop of Henle and the vasa recta

65

in which of the following locations is filtrate osmolality highest?

b. tip of the loop of Henle

66

which of the following statements is true?

c. reabsorption of water in the filtrate may be hormonally controlled

67

the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine depends on

b. a high medullary concentration gradient

68

the vasa recta

c. collects excess water and solutes from the medullary interstitial fluid

69

in the sodium-hydrogen antiport system,

c. sodium ions are transported into the cell; hydrogen ions are transported out of the cell

70

tubular secretion occurs in which of the following structures?

d. distal convoluted tubule

71

tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ in that

b. tubular secretion adds materials to the filtrate; tubular reabsorption removes materials from the filtrate

72

hydrogen ions are secreted into the filtrate by both the

a. proximal and distal tubules

73

which of the following are most likely to be actively secreted into the distal convoluted tubule?

a. potassium ions

74

potassium ions enter the lumen of the ____ by the process of active transport

d. distal tube

75

as ADH production declines,

d. the urine volume increases

76

when ADH binds to receptor sites on distal tubule cells,

e. the distal tubule is more permeable to water

77

urea is

b. diffuse out of the collecting ducts into the interstitial fluid of the medulla and then diffuse into the descending loop of Henle

78

which of the following ions are cotransported across the wall of the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and the ascending loop of Henle?

c. sodium and chloride

79

the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules

d. vary in their permeability to water relative to the amounts of ADH present

80

the collecting duct becomes more permeable to water when

b. ADH production increases

81

water reabsorption by the renal tubules uses

d. osmosis

82

in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

b. potassium and chloride are cotransported with sodium across the apical membrane

83

once inside the cells of the ascending limb, potassium and chloride cross the basal membrane into the interstitial fluid by the process of

a. facilitated diffusion

84

the proximal convoluted tubule is

b. the site of glucose and amino acid reabsorption

85

arrange the following in correct order

b. 4, 2, 1, 3

86

glucose is usually completely reabsorbed from the filtrate by the time the filtrate has reached the

d. end of the proximal convoluted tubule

87

when sodium is actively transported from tubular cells to the interstitial fluid

c. Na+ concentration gradient is established between the tubule lumen and tubule cell

88

substances that are cotransported into proximal convoluted tubule cells include

d. glucose molecules with sodium ions

89

most water is reabsorbed from the filtrate in the

a. proximal convoluted tubule

90

which of the following events would increase filtration pressure?

b. constriction of the efferent arteriole

91

in the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation, what is the response to an increase in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole?

d. constriction of the afferent arteriole

92

what is the effect of intense sympathetic stimulation on the GFR?

b. GFR decreases

93

the movement of fluid into Bowman's capsule is opposed by

b. capsular hydrostatic pressure

94

if the following hypothetical conditions exist in the nephron, calculate the net filtration pressure

c. 50 mmHg

95

which of the following pressures tends to force fluid from the glomerulus through the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule?

d. golmerular capillary pressure

96

passage of proteins into Bowman's capsule is prevented by

e. the size of the capillary pores, the size of the filtration slits in the podocytes, and the size of the proteins

97

in the glomerulonephritis, the permeability of the filtration membrane increases allowing proteins to cross the membrane. which of the following would you expect to observe?

a. increase in filtration volume

98

decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure affects renal function by

a. increasing net filtration pressure

99

at the rate of 125 ml of filtrate/minute, estimate the amount of filtrate formed in 24 hours

d. 180 liters

100

what percent of filtrate becomes urine?

a. less than 1%

101

plasma contains a much greater concentration of ____ than the glomerular filtrate

c. protein

102

the active transport of substances into the filtrate is called tubular

c. secretion

103

the part of the cardiac output that passes through the kidneys is the

a. renal fraction

104

the amount of filtrate produced per minute is called the

c. glomerular filtration rate

105

skeletal muscle that surronds the urethra as it extends through the pelvic floor forms the

c. external urinary sphincter

106

urine formation involves

e. filtration of the plasma, reabsorption from the filtrate, and the secretion into the filtrate

107

formation of filtrate depends on a

a. pressure gradient

108

which of these vessels gives rise to the peritubular capillary?

c. efferent arteriole

109

trace the path of a red blood cell from the renal artery to the glomerulus:

c. 1, 3, 2, 4, 5

110

the urinary bladder

a. stores urine until it is voided

111

choose the one that does not belong

b. glomerulus

112

one feature of renal blood circulation that makes it urine is that

d. each nephron has at least two capillary networks

113

the vasa recta is a specialized portion of the

d. peritubular capillary

114

urine drains from the nephron into the calyces through the

b. collecting duct

115

arrange the following in the sequences in which filtrate moves through them

d. 2, 4, 1, 3

116

what type of cells form the proximal convoluted tubule?

a. simple cuboidal epithelium with microvilli

117

the portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting ducts is the

c. distal convoluted tubule

118

the renal corpuscle connects to the

e. proximal convoluted tubule

119

which of the following is between the proximal and distal convoluted tubles?

b. the loop of Henle

120

the filtration membrane consists of the

e. podocytes, capillary endothelium, and basement membrane

121

choose the term that does not belong

a. glomerulus

122

the juxtaglomerular apparetus is composed of

a. juxtaglomerular cells and the macula densa

123

the openings between the endothelial cells of the glomerular capillaries are called

a. fenestrae

124

filtration slits is the name given to the

c. gasps between the podocyte processes in the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule

125

an obstruction in the afferent arteriole would reduce the flow of blood into the

a. glomerulus

126

the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule

e. is part of the filtration membrane and contains podocytes

127

which of the following layers of the filtration membrane is closest to the plasma?

c. glomerular endothelium

128

the inner layer of Bowman's capsule consists of specialized cells called

b. podocytes

129

the network of capillaries that is located in Bowman's capsule is called the

b. glomerulus

130

the renal corpuscle consists of

b. the glomerulus and Bowman's capsule

131

which of the following structures is a capillary?

a. glomerulus

132

the structural and functional units of the kidneys are called

a. nephrons

133

the juxtamedullary nephrons

a. have long loops of Henle

134

which of the following is not part of a nephron?

b. collecting duct

135

corticol tissue located between the pyramids is called

c. renal columns

136

the tip of each renal pyramid is called

b. a renal papilla

137

the renal papillae extended into the

c. minor calyces

138

blood vessels, nerves, and the ureter enter and leave the kidney at the

a. hilum

139

the ureter expands into the substance of the kidney as the

b. renal pelvis

140

the portion of the kidney that is composed of cone-shaped renal pyramids is called the

b. medulla

141

urine is carried from the kidneys to the urinary bladder by the

b. ureter

142

arrange the following structures in correct sequence:

b. 3, 2, 1, 4, 5

143

the kidney is protected from mechanical shock by the

c. renal fat pad

144

what is/are the main excretory organ/s of the body?

d. kidneys

145

the kidney functions in

d. excretion of metabolic wastes

146

which of the following functions would not be performed by the kidney?

a. urine storage


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