what muscle is responsible for contraction of the urinary bladder during mucturition?
what type of tissue is responsible for the expansion of the urinary bladder during filling?
how much urine would be in the urinary bladder to increase the pressure to an uncomfortable point?
which of the following statements concerning the micturition reflex is false?
with aging, a loss of inhibitory action potentials to the sacral region of the spinal cord results in
in glomerular nephritis, proteins and white blood cells enter the filtrate resulting in
which of the following conditions is characterized by inflammation of the renal medulla?
which of the following is NOT an effect of aging on the kidneys?
diuretics that work by reducing H+ secretion and the reabsorption of HCO3- ions are classified as
if the tubular maximum for a particular amino acid is 200 mg/100 ml and the concentration of that amino acid in the blood is 100 mg/100 ml, the amino acid
drug companies use which of the following to help them calculate the duration of action of a medication?
renal blood flow per minute can be calculated if you know the clearance calculation for ____ as well as the person's hematocrit
tubular load refers to the amount of a given substance that
to calculate plasma clearance of any substance, it is necessary to know the
a substance used to calculate plasma clearance must
what macula densa cells experience increased Na+ concentration in the filtrate, they respond by
if extracellular fluid osmolality is 385 mOsm/kg, the kidneys will increase reabsorption of
ADH increases the permeability of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ducts by
autoregulation in the kidney involves changes in the degree of
aldosterone exerts its effect on the kidney tubules by
lasix is a diuretic that blocks the reabsorption of sodium in the ascending loop of Henle. the result is giving this drug would
consumption of alcohol increases urine production by
a 15% increase in blood pressure would result in which of the following changes in ADH secretion?
which of the following situations increases the number of action potentials to the supraoptic regions of the hypothalamus?
filtrate reabsortion, which occurs regardless of the concentration and volume of urine produced, is referred to as
urine concentration and volume depend on water reabsorption in the
some lung cancers secrete large amounts of ADH. this causes increased water reabsorption in the
by the time filtrate reaches the tip of the loop of Henle, ____ of the filtrate has been reabsorbed
the filtrate that drips from the renal papillae into the calyces
starting from the collecting duct, indicate the order in which urea molecules move to maintain the medullary concentration gradient
which of the following statements is true?
which structure removes excess water and solutes from the kidneys medullary interstitial fluid?
which of the following helps maintain a high solute concentration in the kidney medulla?
which of the following would help maintain the medullary concentration gradient?
the countercurrent multiplier system
which of the following statements is true?
the ability of the kidney to concentrate urine depends on
in the sodium-hydrogen antiport system,
tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion differ in that
which of the following are most likely to be actively secreted into the distal convoluted tubule?
when ADH binds to receptor sites on distal tubule cells,
which of the following ions are cotransported across the wall of the proximal convoluted tubule, distal convoluted tubule, and the ascending loop of Henle?
the collecting ducts and distal convoluted tubules
in the ascending limb of the loop of Henle
once inside the cells of the ascending limb, potassium and chloride cross the basal membrane into the interstitial fluid by the process of
glucose is usually completely reabsorbed from the filtrate by the time the filtrate has reached the
when sodium is actively transported from tubular cells to the interstitial fluid
substances that are cotransported into proximal convoluted tubule cells include
which of the following events would increase filtration pressure?
in the myogenic mechanism of autoregulation, what is the response to an increase in blood pressure in the afferent arteriole?
if the following hypothetical conditions exist in the nephron, calculate the net filtration pressure
which of the following pressures tends to force fluid from the glomerulus through the filtration membrane into Bowman's capsule?
passage of proteins into Bowman's capsule is prevented by
in the glomerulonephritis, the permeability of the filtration membrane increases allowing proteins to cross the membrane. which of the following would you expect to observe?
decreased blood colloid osmotic pressure affects renal function by
at the rate of 125 ml of filtrate/minute, estimate the amount of filtrate formed in 24 hours
skeletal muscle that surronds the urethra as it extends through the pelvic floor forms the
urine formation involves
one feature of renal blood circulation that makes it urine is that
what type of cells form the proximal convoluted tubule?
the portion of the nephron that empties into the collecting ducts is the
the filtration membrane consists of the
filtration slits is the name given to the
the visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
which of the following layers of the filtration membrane is closest to the plasma?