Campbell Biology Ch 56 PT MB

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Campbell Biology
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Chapter 56 Practice Test Mastering Biology
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1

The integration of several sciences such as ecology and genetics to sustain biological diversity at all levels is known as _____.
A)conservation biology
B)restoration ecology
C)ecology
D)bioremediation
E)biological augmentation

A)conservation biology

2

Extinction is a naturally occurring phenomenon that has occurred on Earth since life began. Why are scientists so concerned about extinction now?
A)One of the greatest periods of mass extinction is occurring now.
B)Human activities are directly responsible for today's mass extinctions.
C)Extinction is occurring faster than ever before and faster than rates at which new species form.
D)Large numbers of plant species, which form the base of terrestrial food webs, are becoming extinct.
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

E)All of the listed responses are correct.

3

What are the three levels of biodiversity?
A)genetic, species, biome
B)molecular, species, biome
C)genetic, population, ecosystem
D)genetic, species, ecosystem
E)molecular, species, ecosystem

genetic, species, ecosystem

4

Crop pollination, water purification, and moderation of weather extremes are just a few examples of _____.
A)ecosystem diversity
B)biological augmentation
C)bioremediation
D)ecosystem services
E)global change

ecosystem services

5

The greatest cause of extinction of species today is _____.
A)habitat alteration
B)global warming
C)predation
D)the greenhouse effect
E)overharvesting

habitat alteration

6

Which of the following threaten(s) biodiversity?
A)habitat alteration
B)overharvesting
C)introduced species
D)global change
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

7

The natural human connection to nature and other forms of life is called _____.
A)biophilia
B)biodiversity
C)bioremediation
D)photophilia
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

biophilia

8

Which of the following groups is most severely threatened with extinction?
A)amphibians
B)birds
C)mammals
D)plants
E)fishes

amphibians

9

Which major threat to biodiversity has contributed to about 40% of the extinctions recorded since 1750, and is brought on by humans deliberately and accidentally?
A)habitat destruction
B)bioremediation
C)introduced species
D)overharvesting
E)acid precipitation

introduced species

10

Clearing a forest to create a region for grazing cattle is an example of what type of threat to biodiversity?
A)habitat loss
B)introduced species
C)overharvesting
D)bioremediation
E)global change

habitat loss

11

What is the key factor driving an extinction vortex?
A)the size of the endangered organisms
B)loss of genetic variation
C)the size of the population
D)the major threats to biodiversity that were involved in making the species endangered
E)how involved humans are in saving the population from extinction

loss of genetic variation

12

What is the effective population size of a population containing 1,200 individuals of whom 500 females breed with 500 males?
A)1,000 or 83.3%
B)1,000 or 100%
C)250 or 20.8%
D)1,200 or 100%
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

1,000 or 83.3%
Ne = 4Nf Nm / Nf + Nm

13

The declining-population approach _____.
A)emphasizes the environmental factors that caused a population's decline
B)emphasizes smallness itself as an ultimate cause of a population's extinction
C)emphasizes the impact of the loss of genetic diversity in a population
D)was used to help increase the population size of prairie chickens in Illinois
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

emphasizes the environmental factors that caused a population's decline

14

What is one viable solution to help increase the effective size and genetic variation in the grizzly bear population in Yellowstone National Park?
A)Conservation biologists could increase genetic diversity by selectively breeding bears within the Yellowstone population that have not bred together before.
B)Conservation biologists could introduce another population of bears of equal size to Yellowstone.
C)Conservation biologists could introduce just two new bears each decade from another population.
D)The park should be closed to humans until the bear population can revive.
E)Conservation biologists could develop methods to help bears locate each other for breeding.

Conservation biologists could introduce just two new bears each decade from another population.

15

Which statement below describes a finding of researchers who studied the decline of red-cockaded woodpeckers?
A)The population decline could be traced to periodic brush fires.
B)The woodpeckers live in groups of one breeding pair and up to four sterile "helpers" that help incubate eggs and feed nestlings.
C)Individuals generally have a better chance of reproducing by remaining behind than by dispersing and excavating homes in new territories.
D)The birds would not occupy nesting cavities created by the researchers.
E)Red-cockaded woodpeckers drill small holes around their nest cavities. The resin that accumulates around the holes attracts small insects for the nestlings to eat.

Individuals generally have a better chance of reproducing by remaining behind than by dispersing and excavating homes in new territories.

16

Which of the following is a step in the declining-population approach to species conservation?
A)Confirm that the species is in decline.
B)Determine the species' environmental requirements.
C)Develop hypotheses for all possible causes of the decline.
D)Test the most likely hypothesis first.
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

17

The MVP of a population _____.
A)requires that researchers calculate the effective population size
B)is largely based on the dietary habits of the species
C)is used to estimate the impact that a species has on other species in its environment
D)applies only to those species that migrate over great distances to reproduce
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

requires that researchers calculate the effective population size

18

Which of the following is most closely associated with the declining-population approach?
A)the evaluation of population declining on a case-by-case basis
B)extinction vortex
C)minimum viable population size
D)effective population size
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

the evaluation of population declining on a case-by-case basis

19

What did the researchers do that caused red-cockaded woodpeckers to form new breeding groups at new sites?
A)constructed nesting cavities at new sites
B)removed predators from the area
C)introduced new species of insects to the surrounding region as a new food source
D)introduced 20 new red-cockaded woodpeckers to the breeding population
E)permitted the understory around the pines to grow taller than usual

constructed nesting cavities at new sites

20

Which of the following statements about edge effects is correct?
A)They are defining features of landscapes.
B)Edges have their own set of physical conditions, which differ from those on either side.
C)As a habitat patch becomes progressively smaller, the percentage of the patch influenced by the edge effect increases.
D)As habitats are fragmented, edge-adapted species benefit at the expense of other species that are not edge-adapted.
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

21

Which statement below about movement corridors is correct?
A)Lakes often serve as corridors.
B)Corridors have been shown to decrease the exchange of individuals among populations.
C)Artificial corridors such as bridges and tunnels have saved many animals from being killed crossing highways.
D)Corridors are especially important to species that do not migrate.
E)Corridors have been instrumental in stopping the spread of disease.

Artificial corridors such as bridges and tunnels have saved many animals from being killed crossing highways.

22

The "zoned reserve" system of landscape management calls for _____.
A)many small interconnected nature reserves
B)protected areas to be surrounded by buffer zones
C)bioremediation
D)assisting the movement of individuals from a source to a sink population
E)movement corridors

protected areas to be surrounded by buffer zones

23

What Central American country is a world leader in zoned reserves?
A)Costa Rica
B)Brazil
C)Peru
D)Belize
E)Panama

Costa Rica

24

Connections between habitat fragments are referred to as _____.
A)movement corridors
B)highways
C)zoned reserves
D)riparian areas
E)landscapes

movement corridors

25

Biodiversity hot spots are _____.
A)distributed evenly throughout the biosphere
B)regions with the potential for high levels of extinction
C)the same for all groups of organisms
D)regions where thermophilic species thrive
E)resistant to environmental degradation due to their large number of species

regions with the potential for high levels of extinction

26

How have human activities increased the supply of fixed nitrogen available to primary producers?
A)use of nitrogen fertilizers
B)increased cultivation of legumes
C)deliberate burning of fields
D)both the first and third answers
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

27

_____ are the most affected by toxic compounds in the environment because _____.
A)Cyanobacteria ... many of these compounds prevent nitrogen fixation
B)Phytoplankton ... many of these compounds halt photosynthesis
C)Primary consumers ... they consume primary producers containing the compounds
D)Top-level carnivores ... the biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a larger biomass ingested at the level below
E)Herbivores ... plants tend to store these toxic compounds in large quantities.

Top-level carnivores ... the biomass at any given trophic level is produced from a larger biomass ingested at the level below

28

Which of the following is thought to be a possible consequence of rising CO2 levels?
A)C3 crops, such as wheat and soybeans being replaced by more C4 plants such as corn
B)falling global temperature
C)increased breakdown of atmospheric ozone
D)increased vegetative productivity
E)more rapid warming at the equator than at the poles

increased vegetative productivity

29

How do climatologists estimate past atmospheric CO2 concentrations?
A)They extrapolate back through time based on the current rise in CO2 levels.
B)They measure the CO2 concentrations in air bubbles trapped in glacial ice.
C)They measure radioactive isotopes in shark teeth.
D)They analyze fossils of ancient vegetation.
E)All of the listed responses are correct.

They measure the CO2 concentrations in air bubbles trapped in glacial ice.

30

Ozone is _____.
A)harmful in the upper atmosphere
B)beneficial in the upper atmosphere
C)beneficial in the lower atmosphere
D)harmful in the upper atmosphere and beneficial in the lower atmosphere
E)beneficial in both the upper atmosphere and the lower atmosphere

beneficial in the upper atmosphere

31

The destruction of the ozone layer is most directly linked to _____.
A)increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere
B)destruction of tropical rain forests
C)release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere
D)decrease in the production of ozone precursors by chemical production plants
E)global warming

release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere

32

What does E. O. Wilson propose regarding the concept of biophilia?
A)Humans cannot control the urge to "subdue" Earth.
B)Biophilia is an evolutionary product of natural selection acting on a brainy species whose survival depends on a close connection to the environment.
C)"We must consider our planet to be on loan from our children, rather than being a gift from our ancestors."
D)We should concentrate on our desire to save the environment for its resources.
E)None of the listed responses is correct.

Biophilia is an evolutionary product of natural selection acting on a brainy species whose survival depends on a close connection to the environment

33

One of the most impressive models of sustainable development can be seen in the _____.
A)United States' national park system
B)use of petroleum products in Western countries
C)increasing popularity of organic farming
D)Costa Rican zoned reserves
E)growth of open lands programs sponsored by a variety of government entities

Costa Rican zoned reserves

34

Which of the following factors can decrease biodiversity?
A)complex population interactions
B)introduced species
C)a higher degree of habitat heterogeneity
D)narrower niches
E)increased energy availability

introduced species


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