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Chapter 24:1--The War Unfolds

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created 5 years ago by daliahgirl

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-Truman's policy, called for US to resist SU attempts to spread communism, continued with Eisenhower


domino theory

-Eisenhower's theory, principle that became associated w/ US involvement in Southeast Asia: refers to the fear that if 1 Southeast Asian nation falls to Commies, that other will fall
-Commy takeover of Vietnam threat to surrounding countries


describe Vietnam's history of nationalism

-extended back about 2000 years, spent much time resisting Chinese takeover, 1800s France became colonial power in Vietnam, met similar resistance


who was Ho Chi Minh?

-sympathized w/ commy ideas, fought for independence before, during, after WWII, head pf League of the Independence of Vietnam (or Vietminh)
-arouse people's feelings of nationalism against French control


what did Ho Chi Minh's leadership of the Vietminh lead to?

-he aroused people's feelings to remove French control from Vietnam
-French then formed Republic of Vietnam headed by emperor Bao Dai
-war between them ended May 1964, Vietminh defeated the French


Geneva Accords
what was it?
who met there?
what was the result?

-April 1954 international conference in Geneva, Switzerland after French defeat in Vietnam
-reps including Ho Minh, Bao Dai, French, China, US and SU met & arranged peace settlement
-Vietnam divided near 17th parallel into 2 nations in July 1954


Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)

-formed September 1954 by US and 7 other countries to stop spread of communism


who became the president of Commy North Vietnam and non-Commy South Vietnam?
what did the Genevra conventions call for to unify the country & why did SV refuse this?

-Ho Chi Minh of NV & Ngo Dinh Diam, former Vietnam official who had been living in exile in US of SV
-called for elections to be held 1956, SV refused claiming that Commies wouldn't hold fair elections


how did Truman make do on his pledge to aid any nation threatened by Commies in Vietnam?
what did Eisenhower do later?

-starting 1950 gave economic aid to French in Vietnam to gain their support for containment in Europe, after French defeat US supported SV
-he pledged support to SV, by 1960 were about 675 US military advisers in SV


what was Kennedy foreign policy towards Vietnam?
what did SV's pres (Diem) tell US vice pres Johnson & how did Kennedy respond?

-to prevent spread of commies at all costs, strengthening & protecting SV gov
-that SV needed more aid to survive, Kennedy increased # of US military advisers in Vietnam


why did Diem lack support in SV?

-he imprisoned people who criticized his gov & filled many gov positions w/ members of family
-US aid for economic reforms instead went to military and pockets of corrupt officials


what led to diem's downfall?

-launched unpopular program for peasant relocation to isolate theme for commy influences
-catholic in mostly buddhist country, said bs follow cs laws, then b monk burn himself in protest
-Kennedy realized that diem couldn't help in war against commies, told SV military leaders to overthrow Diem, nov 1963 seized gov murdered diem


who was Robert McNamara?
what role did us official Robert McNamara play in the Vietnam war?

-Kenney's secretary of defense, repub, close adviser, business knowledge, as sod cut costs while modernized armed forces, turned pentagon's thinking away from reliance on threat of nuclear bombs towards 'flexible responses' to military crises
-under Johnson McNamara pushed for direct US involvement in war, later questioned if complete withdrawal better


what foreign policy did Johnson believe in after Kennedy's assassination?

-containment-standing up to the commies


what happened in SV after diem's assassination?

-successors established military gov--unsuccessful & unpopular, ruling generals argued, directed army poorly


Vite Cong and the National Liberation Front

-commy guerrillas in SV, gained control of more land and more loyalty than unpopular gov
-Ho Chi Minh and NV helped Viet Cong


-Johnson's meeting with Henry Cabot Lodge:
-at same time Johnson was:
-what did J do in the end?

-Johnson met with us ambassador to sv, said J faced tough decisions if were to stay in Vietnam
-J didn't want to leave SV cause domino theory
-skeptical bout war, didn't want full-out war, didn't want to damage authority of US by leaving
-decided to escalate the war


-attack on US destroyers:
-what did J use this incident as?

-August 1964 J said NV torpedo boats attacked US destroyers in international waters in Gulf of Tonkin close to NV, events DID NOT actually occur
-excuse to deepen US involvement in V, asked for Gulf of Tonkin Resolution


Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

-gave president authority to take all needed measures to repel army attack against forces of US & prevent further aggression
-now had nearly complete control of US actions in V, w/out official declaration of war from Congress

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