All Living Cells can be classified into 2 groups.Name them______________ and _____________.
Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are similar are chemically similar in that they both contain _______, _________,__________,and ________________.
They use the same kinds of chemical reactions to ___________, _______________, and _______________.
It is primarily the structure of the cell and the absence of organelles (specialized cell structures that have specific functions) that distinguish ____________ from ___________________.
Chief distinguishing characteristics of prokaryotes ( from the Greek meaning prenucleus) are:
1.Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane and is usually a singular, circularly arranged chromosome.(Some bacteria such as Vibrio cholerae, have 2 chromosomes and some have linearly arranged chromosome)
2.Their DNA is not associated with histones (special chromosome proteins found in eukaryotes); other proteins associated with the DNA.
3.They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.
4.Their cell walls almost always contain the complex polysaccharide peptidoglycan.
5. They usually divide by binary fission. During this process the DNA is copied and the cells split into 2 cells. Binary fission involves fewer structures and processes than eukaryotic cell division.
Chief distinguishing characteristics of eukaryotes (from the Greek meaning true nucleus) are:
1. Their DNA is found in the cell's nucleus which is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear membrane and the DNA is found in multiple chromosomes.
2. Their DNA is consistently associated with chromosomal proteins called histones and non-histones.
3.They have a number of membrane-enclosed organelles, including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysomes and sometimes chloroplasts.
4.Their cell walls when present are chemically simple.
5.Cell division usually involves mitosis, in which chromosomes replicate and an identical set is distributed into each of two nuclei. The process is guided by the mitotic spindle a football shaped assembly of microtubules. Division of the cytoplasm and other organelles follows so that the two cells produced are identical to each other.
The 1000s of bacteria are differentiated by many factors such as_________, ________________,______________,and ____________.
Most bacteria rage in size from _______ to _________ in length.
They have a few basic shapes: ______________, ______________, and _______________.
Cocci are usually round but can be _________,________,or ________________.
When cocci divide to reproduce, the cells can remain
a) attached to one another
b) get pulled apart
The cocci that divide in multiple planes and remain attached in cube-like groups of 8 are called
The cocci that divide in multiple planes and form grapelike clusters or broad sheets are called?
True or false? bacillus can not form staphylo arrangement
Spirilla have _______________ and _______________ and _____________________.
Bacillus has 2 meanings in microbiology what are they?
Other cell shapes such as star, rectangular are usually what?
What are the typical structures of bacteria?
Bacterial glycocalyx is?
What is capsule?
What is the glycocalyx substance that is loosely attached to the cell wall and unorganized?
Who was the first person to show direct evidence that DNA is genetic material?
Frederick Griffith's Experiment (Sneak Peek)through a process called bacterial transformation
Used Streptococcus pneumoniae: used mice and injected them with the S strain-which were encapsulated which killed the mice. The R strain couldn't attach and the WBCs could kill it- it is virulent. Heat killed S strain but when the R strain was put in with the heat killed S strain there was just enough to activate the S- strain and kill the mice.
Motility occurs in when bacteria have?
Flagella may be:
Flagella have 2 types of movement what are they?
What is taxis?
allowing bacteria to move either towards or away from a particular stimulus through the use its flagella. Bacteria respond environment via receptors. Receptors interact with cytoplasmic proteins which in turn affect the rotation of the flagella.
Chemotaxis is a response to a chemical
Phototaxis is a response to light
The 3 components of flagellar anatomy:
Axial filaments are:
Fimbriae can occur at ________ or _____________.
What are pili and what is their job?
The prokaryotic cell wall has:
The main function of the prokaryotic cell wall is to____________?
The disaccharide is made up monosaccharides called?
How do antibiotics affect the cell wall?
penicillin interferes with the final linking of the peptidoglycan rows by peptide cross over bridges. As a result the cell wall is greatly weakened and the cell undergoes lysis, destruction caused by the rupture of the plasma membrane and the loss of cytoplasm.
Because of cell lysis with antibiotics you may feel worse before you feel better.
Gram positive cell walls consists of many layers of _________ and gram negative cell walls ________.
Because of the negative charge from the phosphates the teichoic acids may bind and regulate the movements of the ____________ into and out of the cell.
The cell wall of a gram negative cell is embedded into the_________________.
The gram negative bacterial wall has a lipid A component of the LPS which is _____________.
Lipid A is associated with the symptoms of infection by gram negative bacteria such as ______,
_________,_________, and ___________________.
Phospholipids are _______ or ______________ and have 2 components ____________ or ________________.
Tails of phospholipids are ______________ the polar heads are ___________________.
Simple diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions from an area of _________ to __________.
Moving low to high is going ___________.
Facilitated diffusion is?
Transport is solvent moving such as ______________.
Osmosis is the?
internal features of bacteria are: