_______ refers to chemical reactions that result in the breakdown of more complex organic molecules into simpler substances. ________ reactions release energy.
_________ refers to chemical reactions in which simpler substances are comined ro form more complex molecules. ___________ require more ____________.
The energy of________ is used to drive ____________.
Enzymes function is to _____________________________________.
Enzymes are efficient and can operate at relatively ________ temperatures and are subject to various cellular controls.
The 6 classes of enzymes are defined on the basis of the types of ________ they _____________.
Most enzymes are _____________ consisting of a _________ and a _________.
The cofactor can be a __________ (iron, cobalt, copper, magnesium, manganese, zinc and calcium) or a complex organic molecule known as ________________ (NAD+, NADP+, FMN, FAD, or coenzyme A).
True or false. When an enzyme and substrate combine the substrate is transformed and the enzyme is recovered.
Enzymes are characterized by ________________ which is characterized by their active sites.
At ____________ temperatures enzymes undergo ____________ and lose their catalytic properties.
Enzymatic activity increases as substrate concentration ___________ until the enzymes are _______________.
________ inhibitors compete with normal substrate for the ________ site of the enzyme.
_________ inhibitors act on other parts of the apoenzyme or on the cofactor and decrease the enzyme's ability to combine with normal substrate.
__________ ________ occurs when the end product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme's activity near the start of the pathway.
_______ it the removal of one or more electrons from a substrate. Protons (H+) are removed with the electrons.
True or false. Glucose is a reduced molecule; energy is released during a cell's oxidation of glucose.
Energy released during certain metabolic reactions can be trapped to form _____ from ___________ and (P)-phosphate.
During substrate-level phosphorylation a ______________ (P) from an intermediate in catabolism is added to ADP.
True or False. During oxidative phosphorylation energy is released as electrons are passed to a series of of electron acceptors (an electron transport chain) and finally to O2 or another inorganic compound,
Organic molecules contain energy stored in their bonds. More specifically energy is associated with _______ that form those bonds.
Most of a cell's energy is produced from the __________ of ________________.
The two major types of glucose catabolism are __________in which glucose is completely broken down and _________ is when it is partially broken down,
Oxidation reactions involves the oxidation of a molecule. A molecule loses energy-containing electrons. Reduction reactions involves the reduction of a molecule. A molecule gains energy containing electrons. What is a good way to remember this ?
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) does what?
What is ATPs structure?
What are the three mechanisms of ATP?
1. substrate level phosphorylation - transfer of a high energy phosphate from a phosphorylated compound to ADP (sharing phosphate with ADP)
2. Oxidative phosphorylation- cellular respiration
-ETC creates proton motive force
-H+ channeled through ATP synthase along the concentration gradient
-energy from proton motive force used to phosphorylate ADP
3. Photophosphorylation-Photosynthetic organisms
-occurs only in photosynthetic organisms
-process similar to phosphorylation
During cellular respiration energy is generated from the ________________.
In anaerobic respiration what is the final electron acceptor?
Collisions depend on?
Rate of reaction increases when ______________.
Enzymes function as ______________.
The cofactor and _________ make the whole piece that fits into the ________ site.
What factors affect enzymes?
Cellular respiration is ______________________?
Cellular respiration involves 3 major steps:
Glycolysis is the _____________________.
In the Krebs's cycle two carbon acetyl groups are __________.Electrons are picked up by NAD+ and FAD for the electron transport chain.
From one molecule of glucose, oxidation produces __ molecules of NADH, two molecules of ________ and two molecules of ___________ .
___________ is decarboxylated (carbon removed)and is oxidized by_________. Acetyl group is attached via a high energy bond to coenzyme A (CoA)
Krebs's cycle steps:
H+ diffuse across the membrane through ______ channels containing an enzyme ______________.
Fermentation is the metabolic process used to extract energy from a sugar or other _______ molecule.