Innate immunity is ____________.
Adaptive immunity is _________________.
What is the purposeof the innate immune system?
Innate defenses are
The skin is a physical barrier preventing entry. The skin is inhospitable because its____________.
Most normal microflora is ____________.
Other physical factors involve:
lacrimal apparatus: constant washing of the conjunctiva (eye)
Saliva: dilute microbes/ washing teeth
Hair: covered with mucus at the base, function as a filter, traps microbes from entering the LRT
Cilia: ciliary escalator, moves microbes and debris up towards URT, cigarette smoke destroys or paralyzes the cilia
Urine, vaginal secretions, vomiting, defecations and peristalis:
are constantly flushing microbes out of your body
Chemical factors are:
Antimicrobial substances are _________________.
Leukocytes in buffy coat:
Phagocytosis is when _______________________.
Phagocytosis is activated by ___________, ________, and _____________.
Signal for phagocytosis to begin:
The pseudopodia (false feet) bring foreign entity into the cell to digest in the phagocyte within the phagocyte is a ___________ where the foreign entities can be found.
Phases of phagocytosis:
Chemotaxis: signal- microbes, microbial products, damaged dell tissue, wbcs, and other microbial agents attract phagocytes
Adherence: Attachment of phagocyte to microbe
facilitated if coated with protein (PAMPS)
Ingestion: the pseudopodia extend around the microbe and engulf; microbe within a phagocytic vesicle called a phagosome
lysosome fuse with phagosome (phagolysosome)and release digestive enzymes; undigested material is excreted by cell
Phagocytes have ____ ______ receptors that detect and attach to foreign matter. It is like a lock and key fit.
Host cells have toll like receptors that are made of ________ and embedded in the _________.
Microbes have receptors that bind to _________ such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).
What is the purpose of inflammation?
Is chronic inflammation acceptable?
Sequence of events in inflammation:
1. Tissue damage
2. Chemical signals released
*vasodilation - increasing blood flow to area
*permeability of blood vessels-more leaky (WBCs)
*recruitment of phagocytic cells
3. Cellular adhesion molecules are altered by cytokines
- that causes margination which the WBCs attaching to the endothelium of blood vessels before they can exit
4. Exit is called immigration
5. Tissue repair: new cells replace damaged ones
The 4 responses of inflammation are:
The complement system involves ___________ that are produced by the liver and released into the ___________.
Function of the complement system:
What is C3b's function?
Cytokines (chemical signals) do what?
How can bacteria get around our immune system?
M protein- heat/acid resistant protein on cell wall surface and fimbriae of staphylococcus pyogenes
Capsules- don't let phagocytes to attach to microbes
leukocidins and streptolysins- destroy and or rupture WBCs and cells
membrane attack complexes- create holes in phagocytes that cause lysis- release microbes
replication within phagosomes
-due to low pH
some escape before phagolysosome
prevention fusion between phagosome and lysosome