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Microbiology lecture Chapter 16- Innate immunity- Nonspecific Defenses of the Host

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created 5 years ago by mermaidsmom
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1

Immunity is _________________.

The ability to ward off disease through body defenses.

2

Lack of immunity is called _______________.

susceptibility

3

Innate immunity is ____________.

All the body defenses that protect the body against any kind of pathogen. Not specific - no memory and a quick response.

4

Adaptive immunity is _________________.

Refers to defenses (antibodies) against specific microorganisms. Involves memory and slower to respnd.

5

What is the purposeof the innate immune system?

To recognize and destroy pathogens and their products
It does not rely on previous exposure
It is present since birth
largely due to phagocytes- leukocytes
If innate immune system not able to repsond phagocytes will activate the adaptive immune response

6

Innate defenses are

Physical barriers
Chemical barriers
Cellular defenses
Inflammation
(all act to destroy pathogens)
Fever
Molecular defenses ( these 2 inactivate toxins that have gained entry)

7

Physical barrier is the _______.

skin

8

The skin is a physical barrier preventing entry. The skin is inhospitable because its____________.

acidic
salty
very dry
impenetrable

9

Most normal microflora is ____________.

gram (+)
hard for gram (-) to survive on surface of the skin because thinner cells walls

10

The most common microorganism found on the skin is ________________.

staphylococcus

11

Another physical barrier is the ________________.

Mucousal membrane

12

What type of cells produce mucous on the epithelial layer?

goblet cells
mucous (glycoproteins)

13

Can it trap microbes?

yes

14

The cilia moves ______ up and out the _________.

mucous up and out the upper respiratory tract

15

True or false the lower respiratory system should be sterile.

true

16

Other physical factors involve:

lacrimal apparatus: constant washing of the conjunctiva (eye)
Saliva: dilute microbes/ washing teeth
Hair: covered with mucus at the base, function as a filter, traps microbes from entering the LRT
Cilia: ciliary escalator, moves microbes and debris up towards URT, cigarette smoke destroys or paralyzes the cilia
Urine, vaginal secretions, vomiting, defecations and peristalis:
are constantly flushing microbes out of your body

17

Chemical factors are:

Sebum- helps maintain low pH
Oil
Keratin
Lysozyme: digestive product- that can help destroy microbes and can be found in:
-perspiration
- tears
- saliva
-tissue fluids
- urine
- nasal secretions
Gastric juices (low pH)
Vaginal secretions (low pH)

18

Antimicrobial substances are _________________.

The complement system that is a collection of proteins produced in the liver and circulate the whole body attacking pathogenic microbes. They trigger inflammation, lysing foreign entities, and improving and enhancing phagocytosis.

19

Blood

If spun in a machine and all the blood separated it would be 58% plasma, 42% RBCs and less than 1% WBCs.

20

All WBCs are found in the _________________.

Buffy coat

21

Leukocytes in buffy coat:

Neutrophils: highly phagocytic, first to travel to infection site
Eosinophils: phagocytic- produce toxic substance to kill helminths
Monocytes: immature leukocytes at site of infection phagocytic; when they mature they become macrophages in later stage of the infection

22

Phagocytosis is when _______________________.

When defensive cells travel to site of infection;conducted by WBCs (phagocytes)

23

Which leukocyte is the first to arrive when there is an infection?

Neutrophils

24

Phagocytosis is activated by ___________, ________, and _____________.

1. Lipid A the toxic portion gram (-) bacteria
2. Lipopolysaccharide: gram (-) bacteria
3. Cytokines (produced by WBCs)

25

Signal for phagocytosis to begin:

bacteria sending a chemical signal (toxic product)------> wounded tissue ------> Phagocytic cell----> for more phagocytic cells to come help fight the infection

26

The pseudopodia (false feet) bring foreign entity into the cell to digest in the phagocyte within the phagocyte is a ___________ where the foreign entities can be found.

phagosome

27

Phases of phagocytosis:

Chemotaxis: signal- microbes, microbial products, damaged dell tissue, wbcs, and other microbial agents attract phagocytes

Adherence: Attachment of phagocyte to microbe
facilitated if coated with protein (PAMPS)

Ingestion: the pseudopodia extend around the microbe and engulf; microbe within a phagocytic vesicle called a phagosome

Digestion:
lysosome fuse with phagosome (phagolysosome)and release digestive enzymes; undigested material is excreted by cell

28

Phagocytes have ____ ______ receptors that detect and attach to foreign matter. It is like a lock and key fit.

toll like

29

What does PAMPs stand for?

pathogen associated molecular patterns

30

What are PAMPs?

anything that is foreign and not part of your body (self)

31

What is in a lysosomes?

digestive enzymes- lysozine
stomach of the cell

32
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phagocytosis

Chemotaxis
adherence
ingestion
digestion

33

Host cells have toll like receptors that are made of ________ and embedded in the _________.

protein
plasma membrane

34

Microbes have receptors that bind to _________ such as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs).

TLRs

35

Inflammation is:

response to tissue damage

36

What is the purpose of inflammation?

eliminate cause of inflammation
remove microbe, products of microbes (one causing the damage) or keep it localized
repair damaged tissue

37

Is chronic inflammation acceptable?

No- chronic inflammation is a problem because it will start doing damage to your tissue

38

Sequence of events in inflammation:

1. Tissue damage
2. Chemical signals released
-chemicals cause
*vasodilation - increasing blood flow to area
*permeability of blood vessels-more leaky (WBCs)
*recruitment of phagocytic cells
3. Cellular adhesion molecules are altered by cytokines
- that causes margination which the WBCs attaching to the endothelium of blood vessels before they can exit
4. Exit is called immigration
5. Tissue repair: new cells replace damaged ones

39

The 4 responses of inflammation are:

Redness (erythema): rush of blood to area
Swelling (edema): plasma going to injured tissue
Pain: swelling pushing on pain receptors
Heat

40

The complement system involves ___________ that are produced by the liver and released into the ___________.

proteins- sequentially activated
blood stream

41

In the complement system the proteins are designated___________-.

C1, C2, C3......

42

Activated C3 splits into

C3a and C3b

43

Function of the complement system:

cell lysis
triggers inflammation
enhances phagocytosis-opsinization

44

What is C3b's function?

to coat surface of foreign microbe- its like highlighting or flagging the microbe for the immune system and by doing so makes it easier for phagocytes to attach and digest

45
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know this well

no data

46

What 3 things are caused by the complement system?

inflammation
opsinization
cell lysis

47
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How does the complement system get turned on?
Classical pathway-

Antigen-antibody complexes bind and activate C1
C1 activates C2 and C4
C2a and C4b ---->C2aC4b
C2aC4b----> C3

48
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Alternative pathway

Complement proteins (factors) bind to microbes
Triggers C3

49
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Lectin pathway

Phagocytes signal liver to produce lectins
lectins bind to surface sugars on microbe ----> activates C2 and C4
C2a and C4b -----> C3

50

Cytokines (chemical signals) do what?

They trigger the liver cells to produce lectins- very specific in for certain molecular fragments microbial in origin

51

Will lectins bind to our cells normally?

no

52

How can bacteria get around our immune system?

M protein- heat/acid resistant protein on cell wall surface and fimbriae of staphylococcus pyogenes
Capsules- don't let phagocytes to attach to microbes
leukocidins and streptolysins- destroy and or rupture WBCs and cells
membrane attack complexes- create holes in phagocytes that cause lysis- release microbes
replication within phagosomes
-due to low pH
some escape before phagolysosome
prevention fusion between phagosome and lysosome


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