Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation

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Chapter 1 The Human Body: An Orientation
updated 5 years ago by SuperNerdo
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Using Figure 1.1, match the following cavities:

1) Thoracic cavity.

2) Cranial cavity.

3) Abdominal cavity.

4) Vertebral cavity.

Using Figure 1.1, match the following cavities:

1) Answer: C

2) Answer: A

3) Answer: D

4) Answer: B

2
card image

Using Figure 1.2, match the following regions:

5) Umbilical region.

6) Right hypochondriac.

7) Hypogastric (pubic) region.

8) Epigastric region.

9) Right iliac (inguinal) region.

Using Figure 1.2, match the following regions:

5) Answer: C

6) Answer: B

7) Answer: D

8) Answer: A

9) Answer: E

3

Match the following systems:
10) Directly causes mechanical
motion.

11) Responds to environmental
changes by transmitting
electrical impulses.

12) Provides support and levers
for muscles to work on.

13) Protects underlying organs
from mechanical damage and
synthesizes vitamin D.

A) Muscular
B) Nervous
C) Skeletal
D) Integumentary

10) A
11) B
12) C
13) D

4

Match the following systems:

14) Controls the body with
chemical molecules called
hormones.

15) Delivers oxygen and nutrients
to the tissues.

16) Produces antibodies that
neutralize foreign substances.

17) Removes and filters excess
fluid from tissues.

A) Endocrine
B) Immune
C) Lymphatic
D) Cardiovascular

14) A
15) D
16) B
17) C

5

Match the following examples of feedback mechanisms:

18) Blood glucose levels

19) Blood pressure

20) Blood clotting

21) Delivering a baby

A) Positive feedback
B) Negative feedback

18) B
19) B
20) A
21) A

6

Match the following systems:

22) Arteries, veins, heart.

23) Trachea, bronchi, alveoli.

24) Adrenal glands, pancreas,
pituitary.

25) Esophagus, large intestine,
rectum.

26) Kidneys, bladder, ureters.

A) Urinary
B) Cardiovascular
C) Respiratory
D) Endocrine
E) Digestive

22) B
23) C
24) D
25) E
26) A

7

Match the following cavities:

27) Stomach.

28) Heart.

29) Uterus.

30) Brain.

31) Lungs.

A) Abdominopelvic
B) Thoracic
C) Cranial

27) A
28) B
29) A
30) C
31) B

8

Match the following technical terms:

32) Arm.

33) Buttock.

34) Head.

35) Knee (anterior aspect).

36) Chest.

A) Patellar
B) Thoracic
C) Gluteal
D) Brachial
E) Cephalic

32) D
33) C
34) E
35) A
36) B

9

Match the following terms:

37) The bridge of the nose is
________ to the left eye.

38) The upper arm is ________ to
the forearm.

39) The heart is ________ to the
stomach.

40) The fingers are ________ to
the wrist.

41) The stomach is ________ to
the spine.

A) Medial
B) Anterior
C) Superior
D) Distal
E) Proximal

37) A
38) E
39) C
40) D
41) B

10

True/False Questions

1) Positive feedback mechanisms tend to increase the original stimulus.

Answer: TRUE

11

2) Imaging is useful in discovering obstructed blood supplies in organs and tissues.

Answer: TRUE

12

3) The anatomical position means the body is standing at attention with the palms facing
forward and the thumbs pointing away from the body.

Answer: TRUE

13

4) The elbow is proximal to the shoulder.

Answer: FALSE

14

5) The serous membrane that lines the peritoneal cavity wall is called visceral peritoneum.

Answer: FALSE

15

6) A major function of serous membranes is to decrease friction.

Answer: TRUE

16

7) The right hypochondriac region contains the majority of the stomach.

Answer: FALSE

17

8) Lungs carry out an excretory function.

Answer: TRUE

18

9) Embryology concerns the structural changes that occur in an individual from conception
through old age.

Answer: FALSE

19

10) A tissue consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.

Answer: TRUE

20

11) It is important for any organism to maintain its boundaries, so that its internal environment
remains distinct from the external environment surrounding it.

Answer: TRUE

21

12) Without some sort of negative feedback mechanism, it would be impossible to keep our body
chemistry in balance.

Answer: TRUE

22

13) Regardless of the variable being regulated, all homeostatic control mechanisms have at least
three interdependent components.

Answer: TRUE

23

14) In a negative feedback mechanism, ADH is the equivalent to the ʺthermostatʺ in your home
heating system.

Answer: FALSE

24

15) The epigastric region is located superior to the umbilical region.

Answer: TRUE

25

Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions
1) ________ consist of similar cells that have a common function.

Answer: Tissues

26

2) The ________ system secretes hormones that regulate growth processes and nutrient usage by
body cells.

Answer: endocrine

27

3) ________ is a term that describes the back of the elbow.

Answer: Olecranal

28

4) ________ is a term that describes the heel region.

Answer: Calcaneal

29

5) The elbow is ________ to the wrist.

Answer: proximal

30

6) The ________ cavity contains tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the organ of hearing
in the inner ear.

Answer: middle ear

31

7) ________ is explained by chemical and physical principles and is concerned with the function
of specific organs or organic systems.

Answer: Physiology

32

8) ________ is a dynamic equilibrium of your internal environment.

Answer: Homeostasis

33

9) The ________ cavity contains the bladder, some reproductive organs, and the rectum.

Answer: pelvic

34

10) ________ peritoneum is the serous membrane that covers the intestines.

Answer: Visceral

35

11) ________ physiology concerns urine production and kidney function.

Answer: Renal

36

12) ________ is a broad term that covers all chemical reactions that occur within the body cells.

Answer: Metabolism

37

13) What is the function of the serous membranes?

Answer: They act to reduce friction and allow the organs to slide across cavity walls.

38

14) Fully describe the anatomical position for the human body.

Answer: The body is erect, arms hanging at the sides, palms forward, and thumbs pointed away
from the midline.

39

15) Gross anatomy refers to:

Answer: Larger structures of the body that can be seen with the naked eye.

40

16) Can lungs carry out excretory functions? Explain.

Answer: Yes, carbon dioxide is a metabolic waste the lungs excrete.

41

17) The higher we go in the mountains the greater the atmospheric pressure which causes a loss of
oxygen. Comment on this statement.

Answer: The statement is backwardsthe higher we go the less atmospheric pressure, therefore
less oxygen.

42

18) Why is anatomical terminology necessary?

Answer: Anatomical terms are precise words that have limited usage which prevents confusion
when describing the location of body parts.

43

19) The lungs are ________ to the skin.

Answer: deep

44

20) The five cavities of the head are cranial, oral, nasal, middle ear, and ______.

Answer: orbital

45

Clinical Questions

1) A small family was traveling in its van and had a minor accident. The children in the back seats were wearing lap belts, but still sustained numerous bruises about the abdomen, and had
some internal organ injuries.

Why is this area more vulnerable to damage than others?

Answer: The abdominal organs are the least protected in the body because they are not
surrounded by a bony covering such as the ribs, pelvis, or cranium.

46

2) A surgeon removed a section of tissue along a transverse plane for microscopic examination.

What two names would the section be called?

Answer: A cross section or a transverse section.

47

3) Judy is 16 years old and collapses on the gym floor in severe pain to her chest wall. She is rushed by ambulance to the emergency room. Judy is diagnosed with pleurisy and is given an anti-inflammatory through the intravenous route.

Explain why an anti-inflammatory would
be prescribed for someone with pleurisy.

Answer: The pleural space contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant, allowing the
pleurae to slide smoothly over each other as the lungs expand and contract. Pleurisy is an inflammation of the parietal pleura of the lungs. When inflammation occurs in the pleural space, the pleurae do not slide smoothly and this causes severe pain.

48

4) Explain why an 80-year-old woman requires a much longer time to recover from the flu versus a woman who is age 30.

Answer: As we age, our bodyʹs control systems become less efficient. As a result our internal
environment becomes less and less stable.

49

5) The nurse charted: ʺClient has an open wound located on lateral aspect of leg.ʺ

Describe where the wound is located.

Answer: The wound is located on the outer side of the leg.

50

6) The client was admitted to the hospital with hypertension. The development of arteriosclerosis has increased peripheral resistance to blood flow, worsening his hypertension.

This is an example of what type of feedback loop and why?

Answer: Positive feedback loops are common in pathophysiological perpetuation of disease.

For example, arteriosclerotic hypertension results in positive feedback mechanisms that enhance and propagate the initial step in the chain of events, which is hypertension.

51

If you have any questions or notice any mistakes,
Please message me. I will try to reply within 48 hours.
Thank you for taking the time to view my notecards!

Good luck in your class!


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