Bio 2 - Lecture Exam 2

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1

What is the most oldest AND most numerous group of organisms on the planet?

prokaryotes
(.5 to 4 million species)
(3.5-4 billion years old)

2

What two Domains are made up of prokaryotes?

Bacteria and Archaea

3

What are the the first four characteristics of bacteria?

1. No nucleus
2. No membrane bound organelles
3. A single looped chromosome at nucleoid region
4. Small loops of DNA called plasmids

4

What is the term for plasmids being transferred from one organism to another?

lateral gene transfer

5

What are the second four characteristics of bacteria?

1. unicellular (mostly)
2. cocci (sphere), bacilli (rod), or spiral shaped
3. have pili for attachment
4. flagella made from flagellin (if flagella present) flagella also twirl

6

What are the third set of four characteristics of bacteria?

1. cell wall of archaens have carb. heads or sulfate heads
2. have peptidoglycan; gram+ (a lot), gram- (little)
3. have capsules to reduce being phagocytosized
4. some produce endospores

7

Type of organism that fix carbon and get the energy to do this from the sun

photoautotrophs

8

Type of organism that obtain energy by oxidizing inorganic material containing compounds then fix carbon

chemoautotrophs

9

Which Domain has many good examples of chemoautotrophs?

Archaea

10

Type of organism that uses light to drive ATP production from hydrogen. They get their carbon from organic sources.

photoheterotrophs

11

Type of organism that gains energy (ATP) and carbon from the breakdown of organic substances

chemoheterotrophs

12

Most bacteria are what type of -troph?

chemotrophs

13

bacteria that must have 02 for survival are called

obligate aerobes (most bacteria are obligate aerobes)

14

bacteria that use N or S molecules as final electron acceptors in celluar respiration

obligate anaerobes

15

bacteria that prefer 02 but can survive by fermentation if no 02 is present

facultative anaerobes

16

What are the 3 major impacts of prokaryotes?

1. they are major symbionts of plants and animals
2. they are major recyclers of C,H,O,N
3. produce a lot of 02 changes the atmosphere

17

Suppose an unicellular organism that has the following characteristics:

- it lacks organelles that perform aerobic cellular respiration but, can perform this process

- it cannot photosynthesize nor does it use sunlight for any metabolic process

- it gains its energy and carbon from the breakdown of organic molecules

- it lacks a nucleus

- it has a flagellum composed of flagellin

- it has a cell wall with an abundance of peptidoglycan

This organism is most likely a(n):
A. archaen

B. gram negative bacterium

C. gram positive bacterium

D. cyanobacterium

E. purple sulfur bacterium

gram positive bacterium

18

Suppose an unicellular organism that has the following characteristics (actually, the same characteristics as #1 above but, here they are again):

- it lacks organelles that perform aerobic cellular respiration but, can perform this process

- it cannot photosynthesize nor does it use sunlight for any metabolic process

- it gains its energy and carbon from the breakdown of organic molecules

- it lacks a nucleus

- it has a flagellum composed of flagellin

- it has a cell wall with an abundance of peptidoglycan

This organism is most likely a(n):

A. chemoautotrophic obligate aerobe

B. chemoheterotrophic obligate anaerobe

C. chemoautotrophic obligate anaerobe

D. chemoheterotrophic obligate aerobe

E. photoheterotrophic obligate aerobe

chemoheterotrophic obligate aerobe

19

Most members, of what taxon, are usually chemoautotrophic?

archaens

20

If an organism uses Nitrogen or Sulfur compounds as its final electron acceptor in oxidative phosphorylation it can be considered an:

A. obligate aerobe performing aerobic cellular respiration
Correct

B. obligate anaerobe performing anaerobic cellular respiration

C. a facultative anaerobe performing aerobic cellular respiration

D. a photoheterotroph performing aerobic cellular respiration

obligate anaerobe performing anaerobic cellular respiration

21

The members of what bacterial Kingdom changed the Earth’s early atmosphere from anaerobic to aerobic?

the Cyanobacteria

22

What is the term that describes protistans as a taxon with many ancestors?

polyphyletic

23

What are the 3 characteristics of protists?

1. eukaryotes (have nucleus, membrane bound organelles)
2. spend some portion of life in watery environment
3. usually unicellular

24

Name the sub group, clade, and super-group
1. lack plastids
2. have relics of mitochondria
3. anaerobic
4. have 2 nuclei
5. several flagella

diplomonadia, fornicata, excavata

25

name the organism that causes montezuma's revenge and it's clade

G. lamblia
clade: diplomonadia

26

Name the clade, and super-group
1. lack plastids
2. have relics of mitochondria
3. anaerobic
4. undulating membrane

parabasala

27

name the organism that causes trichomoniasis and it's clade

trichomonas vaginalis
clade: parabasala

28

Name the class, phylum, and super-group
1. have strong genetic similarities with others in group
2. have flagella
3. free living and parasitic forms
4. have large clusters of dna inside a single large mitochondrion

kinetoplastida, euglenozoa, excavata

29

Name the class, phylum, and super-group
1. have strong genetic similarities with others in group
2. have flagella
3. free living and parasitic forms
4. have a pellicle (overlapping cell membrane)
5. 1/3 have plastids containing pyrenoids
6. have plantlike photopigments: chlorophyll a&b, beta carotene, and xanthophylls

euglenida, euglenozoa, excavata

30

name the genus, class, phylum, and super-group for the organism that causes african sleeping sickness and chagas disease

trypanosoma, kinetoplastida, euglenozoa, excavata

31

name the genus, class, phylum, and super-group for the organism that causes lesions (sometimes transmitted by sand flies)

leishmania, kinetoplastida, euglenozoa, excavata

32

name the species, class, phylum, and super-group
1. freshwater and free living
2. photosynthesizers
3. have 2 flagella
4. use their eyespot

Euglena sp., euglenida, euglenozoa, excavata

33

name the clade and super-group
1. have small membranous sacs just under their surface
2. longitudinally arranged, subpellicular microtubles
3. extrusomes (small organelles in the cell periphery with ejectable contents)
4. tubular mitochondrial cristae

alvelolata, chromalvelolata

34

name the phylum, clade, and super-group
1. found in plankton
2. bounded by cellulose plates
3. perpendicular grooves holding flagella
4. photosynthesizers with xanthophyll

dinoflagellata, alveolata, chromalveolata

35

name the phylum, clade, and super-group for
organism that produce red tide

dinoflagellata, alveolata, chromalveolata

36

name the genus, phylum, clade, and super-group for the organism that live in a symbiotic relationship with corals

zooxanthellae

37

where will zooxanthellae be found in the tissues of the coral?

tissues lining the tentacles and the oral region

38

name the phylum, clade, and super-group
1. parasites of animals
2. form sprozoites (cells that penetrate host tissues and cells)
3. complex life cycles

apicomplexa, alveolata, chromalveolata

39

name the species, phylum, clade and super-group for the organism that causes malaria

Plasmodium sp., apicomplexa, alveolata, chromalveolata

40

name the phylum, clade, and super-group
1. move by and eat using cilia
2. rigid pellicle to maintain it's shape

ciliata, alveolata, chromalveolata

41

name the taxa, clade, and super-group
1. major component of phytoplankton
2. photosynthesizers with yellow or brown pigment
3. non-motile
4. silica scales
5. reproduce asexually

marine diatoms, stramenopila, chromalveolata

42

name the common name, clade, and super-group
1. cellulose based cell walls
2. form eggs and sperm when sexually reproducing
3. caused the irish potato famine

water molds, stramenopila, chromalveolata

43

name the common name, clade, and super-group
1. multicellular
2. produce algin in their cells
3. large amount of carotenoids
4. relatively complex tissues (but aren't vascular)
5. many have air sacs/floats

Phaeophyta (brown algae), stramenopila, chromalveolata

44

name two phaeophyta (brown algae) common names

kelp, brown seaweeds

45

name the sub group and super-group
1. amoeboid organisms with rigid psuedopodia
2. most secrete calcium carbonate shell around
their body

rhizaria, chromalveolata

46

name the taxa, clade, sub group, and super-group
1. have clhorophyte ednosymbiont that performs photosynthesis,
2. endoxymbiont still has a small portion of its nucleus

chlorarachniophyte, cercozoa, rhizaria, chromalveolata

47

name the taxa, clade, sub group, and super-group
1. amoebae that secrete calcium carbonate shells
2. shells become beach sand
3. photosynthesizing algae endosymbiosis (some are kleptoplastic)

foraminifera, rhizaria, chromalveolata

48

name the clade, sub group, and super-group
1. mostly marine
2. their shells fused in one piece
3. shells made of silica compounds
4. psuedopodia are reinforced by bundles of microtubules making them stiffer

radiolaria, rhizaria, chromalveolata

49

Are all amoeba related?

No, amoebazoans share few characteristics with rhizarians and are in different super-groups

50

Do the Unikonta have plastids?

No, they lack plastids. They are heterotrophic.

51

Name the clade and super-group
1. live in watery environments
2. have shells they ASSEMBLE
3. have lobed pseudopodia

amoebozoa, unikonta

52

name the subgroup, clade, and super-group
1. traditional amoebas
2. contain the species amoeba proteus
3. free living in soils and aquatic environs (fresh and saltwater)

gymnaboebas, amoebozoa, unikonta

53

name the subgroup, clade, and super-group
1. all symbionts of animals and some are parasitic

entamoebas, amoebozoa, unikonta

54

name the species that is the cause of amebic dysnetery

entamoeba histolytica
(of amoebozoa, unikonta)

55

name the subgroup, clade, and super-group
1. aboebae that alternate from single amoeboid cells to colonial aggregates

slime molds, amoebozoa, unikonta

56

name the subgroup for the slime mold that looks like scrambled eggs

plasmodial slime mold

57

name the subgroup for the slime mold that moves together like one organism

cellular slime mold

58

name the super-group that descended from an ancient group of heterotrophic eukaryotes that developed a symbiotic relationship with a cyanobacterium

archaeplastida

59

name the phylum and super group
1. typically multicellular
2. reddish color coming grom phycoerthrin or phycobilin
3. all are autotrophic & most are photoautotrophs
4. can be base for coral reef to grow on
5. store Floridian starch
6. form gametes but sperm is non-motile
7. cell walls are cellulose + other polysaccharides such as agar & carrageenans
8. used as thickeners in food and as growth medium

rhodophyta, archaeplastida

60

name the clade and super group
1. main photopigments are chlorophyll a &b
2. comes in unicellular and multicellular forms
3. some have tissues similar to plants but nonvascular
4. plant-like chloroplasts
5. cellulose cell walls
6. starch stored in chloroplasts
7. some live in symbiotic relationship with fungi

chlorobionta (green plants), archaeplastida

61

what 2 genus are the closest living green algal relatives of land plants?

chara and coleochaete

62

name the green algae that can be found in abundance in the shallow waters of the Florida keys. It has blades and holdfasts plus interconnecting stem-like sturctures. It is avascular.

caulerpa

63

The members of what phylum often live as endosymbionts in coral & sometimes produce red tides?

Dinoflagellata

64

Malaria is caused by the members of what genus?

Plasmodium

65

Kelp is classified into which one of the following?

Phaeophyta

66

Suppose you had to classify an organism with the following characteristics:
the organism is unicellular
it has kinetoplasts
no plastids
no alveoli
no cell wall
This organism should most reasonably be classified in the:

A. Stramenopila

B. Diplomonadida

C. Parabasala

D. Dinoflagellata

E. Euglenozoa

Euglenozoa

67

The organism that caused the Irish potato famine belongs to what subgroup of the Stramenopila?

water molds

68

Members of a particular genus has the following characteristics:

- they have holdfasts (i.e. plant section similar to roots in functionality but, not in structure)

- they have blade (leaf) like structures (again similar to leaf function but, not structure)

- they are avascular (no tissue for moving sugars & water)

This genus is classified in the clade Chlorobionta and members of it are found in great abundance around the Florida keys. However, even though they have similar structures to plants, they are not considered directly in their lineage and are NOT the closest living relatives to plants.

What is the genus that I'm describing?

Caulerpa

69

Suppose the following information for a group of organisms:

- they secrete their own CaCO3 (calcium carbonate shells)
- are a type of amoebae
- their pseudopodia are thin
- the shells left behind, after the organism perishes, get worn down by the environment, thus producing a fine 'white sand'
- they are kleptoplastic

Based on this information, which one of the following is true?

A.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the clade Chlorarachniophyte

B.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the clade Gymnamoeba and in the super-group Excavata

C.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the clade Foraminifera and in the super-group Chromalveolata

D.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the Genus Entamoeba and in the clade Amoebozoa

E.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the Genus Trichomonas and in the clade Radiolaria

F.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the Genus Trypanosoma and in the Class Kinetoplastida

C.
the most reasonable classification of these organisms are that they are in the clade Foraminifera and in the super-group Chromalveolata

70

Suppose an organism with the following characteristics:
- it is strictly anaerobic
- it is a eukaryote but, it lacks any plastids and it has only a few portions of non-working mitochondria (ie. the mitochondria no longer function however, you can see portions of their structure inside the cell)
- it has an undulating membrane
- it is typically found in human vaginal lining

Based on the information listed above, which one of the following statements is true?

A.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Leishmania and in the clade Euglenida

B.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Entamoeba and in the clade Gymnamoeba

C.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Trichomonas and in the clade Diplomonadida

D.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Trichomonas and in the clade Parabasala

E.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Coleochaete and in the Kingdom Rhodophyta

D.
this organism is most reasonably classified in the Genus Trichomonas and in the clade Parabasala

71

name the kingdom
1. eukaryotic
2. nonvascular
3. reproduce by spores
4. store energy in form of glycogen
5. cell walls composed of chitin
6. heterotroophic

fungi

72

what is the name for unicellular fungi?

yeasts

73

what is the name for the vegetative body of a multicellular fungus?

mycelium

74

what are the name of the filaments that make up mycelia?

hyphae

75

mycelium grow from what part?

hypal tips

76

name for porous cell wall within hypha

septum

77

term for a hypha with a septum

term for a hypha without septum

septate (with septum)
aseptate (without septum)

78

term for specialized haphae that can penetrate the cell wall of plants

haustoria

79

term for fungus that bores in and stays attached to the root cells of plants

endomycorrhizal fungi

80

name the two forms of asexual reproduction for fungi

budding (ascomycota and basidiomycota use this)

sporangium formation (zygomycotata use this)

81

symbiotic organism composed of green alga or cyanobacterial cells in a mycelium mesh

lichens

82

symbiotic relationship between plants and certain fungi entertwined areound their roots.

mycorrhizae
(the plant gains increased access to water/minerals and the fungus gets some of the sugars the plant made during photosynthesis)

83

During sexual reproduction of any 2 fungi, two parts (sections or regions) fuse together between the two fungi during the process of plasmogamy. What are the those 2 parts or sections of the 2 fungi called?

hyphal tips

84

What term is defined as the fruiting structure/body of an basidiomycete? Hint: it is mostly composed of many heterokaryotic cells.

basidiocarp

85

What term is defined as the fruiting structure/body of an ascomycete? See previous question's hint.

ascocarp

86

In what structure does karyogamy occur for a sexually reproducing Zygomycete? Hint: the structure could also be termed a cell with many new cells forming inside.

zygosporangium

87

Are the filaments (hyphae - not the basidia) of the basidiocarp dikaryotic-heterokaryotic?

Yes

88

Are the final, generated spores released from a zygosporangium, haploid or diploid?

haploid

89

Other than the ascus, are the filaments/hyphae of the ascocarp dikaryotic/heterokaryotic?

Yes

90

Does the basidiocarp arise from the plasmogamy of the entire mycelium of each mate or just a part of each mate?

the plasmogamy of part of each individual's mycelium

91

When Basidomycetes mate, does karyogamy usually follow immediately after plasmogamy?

No

92

In what specific cell does karyogamy occur, for sexually reproducing Basidiomycetes?

basidium

93

In what cell does karyogamy occur in sexually reproducing Ascomycetes?

ascus

94

Directly after karyogamy, are the cells haploid or diploid? This question applies to the Zygomycetes, Ascomycetes, and Basidiomycetes.

diploid

95

In what structure (cell) are diploid nuclei found in sexually reproducing Zygomycetes? Are they found anywhere else?

zygosporangium
no

96

In what cell does meiosis occur in a sexually reproducing Basidiomycete?

basidium

97

In what structure (cell) are zygotes found in sexually reproducing Zygomycetes?

zygosporangium

98

Does a basidium contain haploid nuclei, diploid nuclei or both types?

both

99

In what cell does meiosis occur in a sexually reproducing Ascomycete?

ascus

100

Are the spores formed in the asci (i.e. the ascospores) haploid or diploid?

haploid

101

Are basidiospores haploid or diploid?

haploid

102

Does the final production of ascospores involve only meiotic karyokinesis OR only mitotic karyokinesis OR both types of karyokinesis?

both

103

of the primary and secondary plant cell walls, which is on the outermost part of the cell?

primary cell wall

104

which cell walls contain lignin?

secondary
(lignin is the tough material of wood)

105

what is the space between two plant cells called?

middle lamella

106

the cell wall of one plant cell is continuous with the cell wall of an adjacent plant cell through what structure?

plasmodesmata

107

central vertical root of a plant is called the

taproot

108

roots of a plant that branch off from main vertical root are the

lateral roots

109

the name of the stem of a leaf

petiole

110

the name of the body of the leaf

blade

111

buds at the junction of the petiole or branch

axillary buds

112

buds at the tip of a branch or petiole of the main stem

terminal buds

113

the junction of any branch or petiole with the main stem

node

114

the distance between nodes is referred to as

the internode

115

the stemlike structure directly below the flower

pedicel

116

the bud at the very end of a shoot

apical bud (where most of the growth occurs)

117

name the simple plant tissue type
1. found in stem, roots, and leaves
2. typical plant cell - not specialized
3. most lack secondary cell wall
4. large central vacuole
5. all developing plant cells start out this way
6. perform most of the regenerative and metabolic functions of the plant: photosynthesis, starch storage in roots, can become companion cells
7. regenerative and wound healing

parenchyma

118

name the simple plant tissue type
1. support tissue of non-woody types
2. have thicker primary cell wall
3. grouped as strands
4. celery strands are an example
5. no secondary wall/lignin
6. not super strong due to growing and elongating

collenchyma

119

name the simple plant tissue type
1. very hard, not easily compressible/stretched
2. lack a protoplast
3. thick lignified secondary wall
4. important support in non elongating plant parts and as conductive elements (vascular tissue)

sclerenchyma

120

name the type of sclerenchyma that are in strands or bundles. eg. hemp and jute

fibers

121

name the type of slerenchyma that can occur individually or in bundles. eg. seed coats, shells of nuts, pit of fruits

sclereids

122

name the complex plant tissue
1. conducts water and minerals and provides structural support
2. is non-living at maturity
3. mainly sclerenchymal type cells, but have parynchemal cells also
4. formed from a cambium and the secondary xylem from vascular cambium.
5. have two types of water conducting cells

xylem

123

what is the only water conducting cell type in the vast majority of both the seedless plants (part of xylem)

tracheids

124

what is the water and mineral conducting element in angiosperms (part of xylem)

vessel elements

125

name the complex plant tissue
1. conducts all the organic molecules and some minerals

phloem

126

type of phloem cell that acts as the conducting or tubing of the phloem

sieve cells (not alive for most part)

127

type of phloem cell that are in large part responsible for loading sugar into the phloem.

companion cells (alive)

128

type of transport responsible for much of the sugar transport among cells. requires atp

active transport (specifically cotransport)

129

movement of molecules from where they are higher in concentration to where they are lower in concentration

diffusion

130

type of diffusion in which water moves from an area with a lower concetration of solute to a higher concentration of solute

osmosis

131

Which of the following statements about the primary and secondary cell walls of plants is most accurate and complete?

A. Both types of cell walls are composed of cellulose fibrils.

B. Primary walls are composed mainly of cellulose and secondary walls are composed mainly of lignin.

C. Primary walls are composed mainly of lignin and secondary walls are composed mainly of cellulose.

D. Both primary and seconary walls are composed primarily of cellulose fibrils but primary cell walls also have lignin.

E. Both primary and seconary walls are composed primarily of cellulose fibrils but secondary cell walls also have lignin.

E. Both primary and seconary walls are composed primarily of cellulose fibrils but secondary cell walls also have lignin.

132

This simple plant tissue is the major support for the elongating parts of many non woody plants.

Collenchyma

133

This complex plant tissue provides circulation for water and minerals as well as major support.

Xylem

134

This simple plant tissue is found just about everywhere in the plant body and performs most of the regenerative and metabolic functions of the plant.

Parenchyma

135

This simple plant tissue is used for support in all kinds of plants and comes in two forms, fibers (long, slender cells that occur in strands or bundles) and sclereids (variously shaped -- but not elongated -- cells that occur individually or in bundles).

Sclerenchyma

136

Which of the following differences between active transport and diffusion is the most accurate?

A. Active transport uses ATP for energy and diffusion uses the thermal energy inherent in the system.

B. Active transport uses thermal energy while diffusion uses ATP.

C. Active transport always depends on the concentration gradient (direction from high concentration to low concentration of molecules) but diffusion does not.

D. Active transport uses a special water transport called osmosis which does not occur in diffusion.

E. Active transport carries only inorganic molecules across the membrane while diffusion is responsible for the organic molecules only.

Active transport uses ATP for energy and diffusion uses the thermal energy inherent in the system.


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