Chapter 3 Cells: The Living Units Matching questions, True / false questions, fill in blank questions, short answer questions, Clinical / essay questions
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Match the following:
15) Forms part of the protein synthesis site in the cytoplasm.
16) Act as ʺinterpreterʺ molecules that recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences.
17) Attaches the correct amino acid to its transfer RNA.
18) Provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions.
19) Found in the cytoplasm, this structure specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made.
20) May be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasm.
A) Transfer RNA
C) Synthetase enzymes
D) Ribosomal RNA
E) Messenger RNA
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21) Chromosomes decoil to form chromatin.
22) Chromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell.
23) Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate.
24) Chromosomes align on the spindle equator.
25) Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.
C) Early prophase
E) Late prophase
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26) Plays a role in the synthesis of steroid-based hormones and proteins.
27) The actual site of protein synthesis.
28) Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton.
29) Dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for ribosomal RNA.
30) Houses DNA and RNA.
B) Endoplasmic reticulum
1) Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
6) In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.
7) The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.
8) A process by which large particles may be taken into the cell for food, protection of the body, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis.
9) The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
12) Pressure caused by gravity is necessary for any filtration pressure to occur in the body.
14) The glycocalyx is often referred to as the ʺcell coat,ʺ which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.
15) In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.
18) Hyperplasia generally means that an organ will increase in size due to the excessive formation of extracellular fluids
21) Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but very few other cells in the body.
22) Most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.
5) In order for the DNA molecule to get ʺshort and fatʺ to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________.
8) Two very important second messengers used in the G protein-linked receptor mechanism are cyclic AMP and ________.
10) The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called ________.
13) Describe two important functions of the Golgi apparatus.
14) Why can we say that a cell without a nucleus will ultimately die?
15) Are Brownian motion, diffusion, and osmosis seen only in living tissue?
16) What forces maintain a steady state ʺrestingʺ membrane potential?
17) Briefly describe the glycocalyx and its functions.
18) Explain the term genetic code. What does it code for?
What are the letters of the code?
19) Why are free radicals so dangerous to cells, and how are they dealt with by the body?
20) In all living cells hydrostatic and osmotic pressures exist. Define these pressures and explain how they are used in the concept of tonicity of the cell.
Answer: Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of water exerted on the cell membrane. Osmotic
pressure is created by different concentrations of molecules in a solution separated by the cell membrane. Since these pressures are exerted on the membrane they can be used by the cell to change the shape of the cell, regulate substances entering and exiting the cell, and bring about the polarity of the cell.
21) What is the common route of entry for flu viruses into a cell?
23) How are the products of free ribosomes different from membrane-bound ribosomes?
24) How are peroxisomes different from lysosomes?
Answer: Some of the peroxisomes are oxidases which use oxygen to detoxify harmful substances.
They are very good at neutralizing free radicals. Peroxisomes divide by simply budding. Lysosomes have powerful hydrolytic enzymes that will pretty much destroy anything they come in contact with. They are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus.
25) Briefly name the subphases of interphase and tell what they do.
G1 - growth phase. The cell is metabolically active and the centriole begins to divide at the end of this phase.
S - DNA replicates itself. New histones are made and assembled into chromatin.
G2 - Enzymes and proteins are synthesized and centriole replication is completed. This is the final phase of interphase.
1) The client was admitted to the hospital for severe dehydration. Explain what changes occur in
extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments during dehydration.
Answer: Fluid volume deficit occurs when the body loses both water and electrolytes from the
extracellular fluid compartment. Fluid is initially lost from the intravascular compartment. Then fluid is drawn from the interstitial compartment into the intravascular compartment, depleting the interstitial compartment. To compensate for the decreased volume, the body then draws intracellular fluid out of the cells. This could lead to collapse and death.
2) Your client has the flu and reports 5-6 loose stools a day. He has experienced an isotonic fluid
volume loss. Explain what an isotonic fluid loss means.
3) You are giving a tap water enema to a patient. An adverse effect of the tap water enema is
4) Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Explain why this
patient would be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection.
5) Describe the difference of cell division between normal cells and cancer cells.
6) Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles are the primary cause of Alzheimerʹs disease.
Neurofibrillary tangles are associated with microtubules. Based on your knowledge of microtubules, explain what may happen to microtubules to cause Alzheimerʹs disease.