Chapter 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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Chapter 9 Muscles and Muscle Tissue matching questions, true / false questions, fill in the blank questions, short answer questions, clinical / essay questions
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1
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Using Figure 9.1, match the following:

1) Endomysium.

2) Fascicle.

3) The tissue that binds muscles into functional groups.

4) Perimysium.

5) Muscle fiber.

Using Figure 9.1, match the following:

1) B

2) D

3) A

4) E

5) C

2
card image

Using Figure 9.2, match the following:

6) I band.

7) H zone.

8) A band.

9) Z disc.

10) M line

Using Figure 9.2, match the following:

6) C

7) B

8) D

9) A

10) E

3

Match the following:

11) Depends on oxygen delivery and aerobic mechanisms.

12) Have very fast-acting myosin ATPases and depend upon anaerobic metabolism during contraction.

13) Red fibers, the smallest of the fiber types.

14) Contain abundant amounts of glycogen.

15) Abundant in muscles used to maintain posture.

16) A relatively high percentage are found in successful marathon runners.

A) Slow (oxidative), fatigue-resistant fibers

B) Fast (oxidative or glycolytic), fatigable fibers

11) A

12) B

13) A

14) B

15) A

16) A

4

Match the following:

17) The stimulus above which no stronger contraction can be elicited, because all motor units are firing in the muscle.

18) The phenomenon in which the contraction strength of a muscle increases, due to increased Ca2+ availability and enzyme efficiency during the warm-up.

19) Continued sustained smooth contraction due to rapid stimulation.

20) The situation in which contractions become stronger due to stimulation before complete relaxation occurs.

21) How a smooth increase in muscle force is produced.

A) Wave summation
B) Treppe
C) Tetanus
D) Multiple motor unit summation
E) Maximal stimulus

17) E

18) B

19) C

20) A

21) D

5

Match the following:

22) A sarcomere is the distance between two ________.

23) The ________ contains only the actin filaments.

24) The thicker filaments are the ________ filaments.

25) Both actin and myosin are found in the ________.

26) The myosin filaments are located in the ________.

A) Myosin
B) Z discs
C) I band
D) A band

22) B

23) C

24) A

25) D

26) D

6

Match the following:

27) Serves as the actual ʺtriggerʺ for muscle contraction by removing the inhibition of the troponin molecules.

28) A neurotransmitter released at motor end plates by the axon terminals.

29) A metabolic pathway that provides for a large amount of ATP per glucose because oxygen is used. Products are water and carbon dioxide and ATP.

30) Normally stored in the terminal cisternae of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

31) Used to convert ADP to ATP by transfer of a high-energy phosphate group. A reserve high-energy compound.

32) Destroys ACh.

A) Calcium ions
B) Aerobic respiration
C) Creatine phosphate
D) Acetylcholine
E) Acetylcholinesterase

27) A

28) D

29) B

30) A

31) C

32) E

7

True/False Questions

1) Once a motor neuron has fired, all the muscle fibers in a muscle contract.

FALSE

8

2) The thin filaments (actin) contain a polypeptide subunit G actin that bear active sites for myosin attachment.

TRUE

9

3) The force of muscle contraction is controlled by multiple motor unit summation or recruitment.

TRUE

10

4) Eccentric contractions are more forceful than concentric contractions.

TRUE

11

5) A motor neuron and all the muscle cells that it stimulates are referred to as a motor end plate.

FALSE

12

6) Peristalsis is characteristic of smooth muscle.

TRUE

13

7) A contraction in which the muscle does not shorten but its tension increases is called isometric.

TRUE

14

8) During isotonic contraction, the heavier the load, the faster the velocity of contraction.

FALSE

15

9) During isometric contraction, the energy used appears as movement

FALSE

16

10) One of the important functions of skeletal muscle contraction is production of heat.

TRUE

17

11) Oxygen debt refers to the oxygen required to make creatine phosphate.

FALSE

18

12) Muscle contraction will always promote movement of body parts regardless of how they are attached.

FALSE

19

13) Although there are no sarcomeres, smooth muscle still possesses thick and thin filaments.

TRUE

20

14) Whereas skeletal muscle cells are electrically coupled, smooth muscle cells appear to be chemically coupled by gap junctions.

FALSE

21

15) Single-unit smooth muscle is found in the intestines.

TRUE

22

16) A resting potential is caused by a difference in the concentration of certain ions inside and outside the cell.

TRUE

23

17) The effect of a neurotransmitter on the muscle cell membrane is to modify its ion permeability properties temporarily.

TRUE

24

18) When a muscle fiber contracts, the I bands diminish in size, the H zones disappear, and the A
bands move closer together but do not diminish in length.

TRUE

25

19) The more slowly a skeletal muscle is stimulated, the greater its exerted force becomes.

FALSE

26

20) Contractures are a result of a total lack of ATP.

TRUE

27

21) Smooth muscles relax when intracellular Ca2+ levels drop but may not cease contractions.

TRUE

28

22) Recruitment is an option in a single-unit smooth muscle cell.

FALSE

29

Fill-in-the-Blank/Short Answer Questions:

1) Only ________ muscle cells are always multinucleated.

skeletal

30

2) Claudication might more simply be called ________.

limping

31

3) The end of the muscle that typically moves when a muscle contracts is called the ________.

insertion

32

4) In the synaptic cleft of a neuromuscular junction, an enzyme called ________ is always present.

acetylcholinesterase

33

5) The time in which cross bridges are active is called the period of ________.

contraction

34

6) ________ (color) fibers are slow (oxidative) fibers.

Red

35

7) Only ________ muscle cells commonly branch.

cardiac

36

8) A smooth, sustained contraction is called ________.

tetanus

37

9) Define physiologic muscle fatigue.

Answer: Fatigue occurs when ATP production fails to keep pace with ATP use even though the muscle still receives stimuli.

38

10) Compare red and white muscles relative to their speed of action and endurance.

Answer: Red muscles tend to have a slow (oxidative) rate and fatigue resistance, whereas white muscle cells have a fast (oxidative) rate and fatigue easily.

39

11) Briefly, what causes rigor mortis?

Answer: Following the death of an individual, ATP is rapidly consumed and cannot be replaced.
Because cross bridge detachment and calcium active transport is ATP driven, calcium leakage from the sarcoplasmic reticulum causes attachment of cross bridges, and lack of ATP prevents detachments.

40

12) What ultimately stops muscle stimulation when the motor neuron ceases firing?

Answer: The ultimate switch is the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. When the neuron stops
releasing ACh, the muscle would not stop contracting if the acetylcholinesterase did not
split the ACh into its two components, acetyl and choline, making them release their binding sites

41

13) A long-distance runner is about to enter a 5-mile race. Beforehand, he spends several minutes warming up. During the warm-up period, the phenomenon of treppe is occurring in body muscles being used. What is treppe and why does it occur?

Answer: Treppe is the staircase phenomenon in which muscles increase their strength of contraction due to increased availability of calcium. Additionally, the increased warmth
due to activity causes an increase in the efficiency of muscle enzyme systems.

42

14) What are the two special inclusions of skeletal muscle cells and how would they be useful to the cell?

Answer: Skeletal muscle cells require a lot of rapidly available fuel to burn in order to function
properly. They also require a lot of oxygen to burn this fuel efficiently. Glycosomes store glycogen which can be quickly converted to glucose, which in turn can be burned to produce ATP. Myoglobin is a chemical much like hemoglobin in blood cells which can store large quantities of oxygen.

43

15) What is the relationship that occurs in the triad of a skeletal muscle cell?

Answer: The sarcoplasmic reticulum is a reservoir for calcium ions in the cellʹs normal resting
state. The T tubule is a fold in the cell membrane between the sarcoplasmic reticuli. When an impulse is activated by a motor neuron, the voltage -regulated change causes SR foot proteins to open Ca2+ channels. The calcium ions are flushed out where they interact with the troponin complex to initiate a contraction. Once the axon stops firing,
the membrane polarity is quickly restored and the calcium ions are pulled off the troponin and attracted back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum.

44

16) Briefly explain where the energy comes from in a one-minute sustained muscle contraction

Answer:

1. The first 4-6 seconds of energy come from stored ATP in the muscle cell.

2. 6-15 seconds of energy come from the transfer of creatine phosphate and ADP (which come from the first few seconds of burn) to form additional ATP.

3. 15-60 seconds of energy come from glycolysis which by now has begun full production of ATP from glucose.

45

17) What are caveoli?

Answer: Folds on the surface of smooth muscle cells that correspond to T tubules in skeletal
muscle cells

46

18) How is it that norepinephrine (NE) can inhibit smooth muscle action in airways, yet stimulate
contractions in smooth muscles everywhere else in the body?

Answer: Airway passages have smooth muscle cells that are unique in that they have two receptor sites on their outer membrane. One receptor site accepts ACh as the neurotransmitter. When excited it causes the smooth muscle to contract. The second
site accepts NE and the inhibitory effect is that the ACh dilates the airway.

47

19) How do the three muscle types respond to being stretched?

Answer: All three muscle types initially respond by contracting more forcefully. However, in smooth muscle cells the increased tension persists only briefly, and the muscle adapts to its new length and relaxes.

48

20) What is agrin?

Answer: Agrin is a growth factor of developing muscles. Agrin stimulates ACh receptors to cluster around a newly forming motor end plate.

49

Clinical Questions

1) Gary was injured in an automobile accident that severed the motor neurons innervating his quadriceps. Even though he has had extensive physical therapy, he is still suffering muscle
atrophy.

Why is the therapy not working?

Answer: In denervation atrophy, fibrous connective tissue replaces the muscle tissue that was lost. When atrophy is complete, fibrous tissue cannot be reversed to muscle tissue.

50

2) Aaron arrived at the hospital with the following symptoms: drooping eyelids; fatigue and weakness of his muscles; and difficulty talking, breathing, and swallowing. What was his diagnosis?

Answer: Aaron probably has myasthenia gravis (an autoimmune disease), which involves a shortage of ACh receptors at the neuromuscular junction.

51

3) Lynn has been waking up each night with intense pain in her calves. She does not feel that it is
serious enough to seek medical attention but would like to know what is causing the pain.

What would you tell her concerning this problem? She has been playing tennis all summer for
several hours each day.

Could this have anything to do with the night pain?

Answer: This is due to sustained spasm, or tetanic contraction, of the gastrocnemius muscle. The
causes could be low blood sugar, electrolyte depletion (particularly sodium and calcium), dehydration, or irritability of the spinal cord neurons. The fact that Lynn has been playing tennis for several hours each day may have caused an electrolyte depletion. She should increase her intake of calcium.

52

4) After removal of an elbow cast, Lauren noticed her arm was immovable.

What happened to her arm?

Answer: Two things have occurred to Lauren while she was convalescing from her injury. First, the immobilization of the arm caused some muscle mass to atrophy. Second, the loss of muscle was replaced with tough connective tissue that locked her arm in place. With therapy the tissue can be stretched or torn enough to return the full range of motion.

53

5) When a geriatric client is admitted to the rehabilitation unit, an important nursing measure is to prevent the loss of muscle mass.

What is the term used for loss of muscle mass and how can the patient prevent it?

Answer: Disuse atrophy is degeneration and loss of muscle mass. The size, shape, tone, and strength of muscles (including the heart) are maintained with mild exercise and increased with strenuous exercise. Promoting exercise to maintain a patientʹs muscle tone, joint mobility, and cardiovascular function is an important nursing function.

54

6) A patient has no peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract.

Explain a possible complication of this condition.

Answer: Peristalsis is wavelike movement produced by the circular and longitudinal muscle fibers of the intestinal walls that propels the intestinal contents forward. Without peristalsis, the patient would be unable to expel their stool, leading to intestinal obstruction.

55

7) The nurse encourages the patient to do his own activities of daily living such as bathing,
feeding, dressing, and toileting activities.

How do these activities promote physical conditioning?

Answer: These activities are isotonic exercises in which muscle tension is constant and then
shortens to produce muscle contraction and movement. Because the muscles contract, the shape, size, and strength of the muscles are maintained as well as joint mobility.

56

8) A patient is admitted for electroconvulsive treatment (ECT). The physician orders the neuromuscular blocking agent metocurine iodide (metubine) to reduce trauma by relaxing skeletal muscles. Explain the process of muscle contraction and how a neuromuscular blocking agent such as metubine would interfere with muscle contraction.

Answer: Muscle contraction begins with a stimulus to the nerve. When the impulse reaches the neuromuscular junction, depolarization occurs, resulting in an influx of calcium ions from the extracellular fluid into the terminals, which then release a neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (Ach), into the cleft. The Ach combines with receptor sites on the post-junctional muscle cell membrane, depolarizing it and facilitating the entry of sodium. Neuromuscular blocking agents act at the motor end plate by competing with the Ach for the receptor sites, or by blocking depolarization.

57

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