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Chapter 1 -- Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System

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created 5 years ago by respiratorytherapist
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Cardiopulmonary Anatomy and Physiology, Jardins.

updated 5 years ago by respiratorytherapist

Grade levels:
College: Second year

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1

Upper airway

- Leads inspired air to the lower airway
- Different from the lungs
- Leads to the lungs

2

Structures of the upper airway

- Nose
- Oral cavity
- Pharynx
- Larynx

3

Nose

Function is to filter, humidify, and condition inspired air.

4

Nasal flaring

Widening of the nostrils during periods of respiratory difficulty.

5

Alar collapse

Opposite of nasal flaring; important sign of nasal obstruction.

6

Vibrassae

Hair follicles located in the vestibule (where filtering begins).

7

Pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium

Lines the posterior two-thirds of the nasal cavity and the tracheobronchial tree.

8

Three bony protrusions

1. Superior conchae
2. Middle conchae
3. Inferior conchae

9

Conchae/turbinates

Separate inspired gas into several different airstreams -- this action increases the contact area between the inspired air and the warm, moist surface of the nasal mucosa.

10

Tongue

Most common cause of airway obstruction in the unconscious person.
Functions:
- Speech
- Holds the food and continuously repositions it between the teeth
- Mixes the food with saliva, form a bolus, and then initiates swallowing by moving posteriorly into the pharynx

11

Roof of the mouth

Formed by the hard and soft palate.

12

Uvula

Keeps food/liquid from going into the respiratory tract.
- Large uvula can cause obstructive sleep apnea

13

Tonsils

A large mass of lymphatic nodules and diffuse lymphatic tissue that protect against bacteria and other harmful substances
Three types:
- Palatine tonsils
- Lingual tonsils
- Pharyngeal tonsils

14

Palatine tonsils

Lymphoid tissues located between the palatine arches on either side of the oral cavity.

15

Lingual tonsils

Loosely associated collection of lymphatic nodules located on the posterior, base of the tongue.

16

Pharyngeal tonsils

Located in the posterior nasopharynx.

17

Pharyngotympanic tubes/eustachian tubes

Run downward to connect the middle ears to the nasopharynx and serve to equalize the pressure in the middle ear.

18

Otitis media

Ear infection.

19

Oropharynx

Lies between the soft palate superiorly and the base of the tongue inferiorly.

20

Laryngopharynx

Lies between the base of the tongue and the entrance of the esophagus.

21

Nasopharynx

Located between the posterior portion of the nasal cavity and the superior portion of the soft palate.

22

Pharyngeal (gag) reflex

Muscles and nerves that produce a stimulation to prevent the aspiration of foods and liquids as well as to prevent the base of the tongue from falling back and obstructing the laryngopharynx.

23

Larynx (voice box)

Three functions:
1. Acts as a passageway of air between the pharynx and the trachea.
2. Serves as a protective mechanism against the aspiration of solids and liquids.
3. Generates sounds for speech.

24

Larynx area

Cartilage, vocal cords, and epiglottis.

25

Cartilage

Rigid structures that protect the airway.

26

Vocal cords

- True vocal cords (upper)
- False vocal cords (lower)

27

Epiglottis

Closes to prevent food and liquid from entering the trachea by diverting food and liquid to esophagus.

28

Glottis

- Space between the vocal cords
- Entrance to the lower airway


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