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MED 121_CH 14

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created 5 years ago by calbery0
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1

anatagonistic

acting in opposition; manually opposing

2

electrolyte

mineral salt (sodium, potassium, and calcium) that carries an electrical charge in solution

3

glucagon

simple sugar that is the end product of carbohydrate digestion

4

insulin

hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that allows body cells to use glucose for energy or store it in the liver as glycogen

5

sympathomimetic

agent that mimics the effects of the sympathetic nervous system

6

adren/o

adrenal glands

7

adrenal/o

adrenal glands

8

calc/o

calcium

9

crin/o

secrete

10

gluc/o

sugar, sweetness

11

glyc/o

sugar, sweetness

12

glycos/o

sugar, sweetness

13

home/o

same

14

kal/i

potassium

15

pancreat/o

pancreas

16

parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

17

thym/o

thymus gland

18

thyr/o

thyroid gland

19

thyroid/o

thyroid gland

20

toxic/o

poison

21

-crine

secrete

22

-dipsia

thirst

23

-gen

forming, producing, origin

24

-toxic

pertaining to poison

25

-uria

urine

26

eu-

good, normal

27

exo-

outside, outward

28

hyper-

excessive, above normal

29

hypo-

under, below

30

poly-

many, much

31

acromegaly

rare hormonal disorder in adulthood, usually caused by a GH-secreting pituitary tumor (adenoma) that promotes the soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal

32

diuresis

increased formation and secretion of urine

33

glycosuria

abnormal amount of glucose in the urine

34

Graves disease

multisystem autoimmune disorder characterized by pronounced hyperthyroidism usually associated with enlarged thyroid gland (goiter) and exophthalmos (abnormal protrusion of the eyeball)

35

hirsutism

excessive distribution of body hair, especially in women

36

hypercalcemia

condition in which the calcium level in the blood is high than normal

37

hyperkalemia

condition in which the potassium level in the blood is higher than normal

38

hypervolemia

abnormal increase in the volume of blood plasma in the body

39

hyponatremia

lower than normal level of sodium in the blood

40

insulinoma

tumor of the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas

41

obesity

excessive accumulation of fat that exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20 percent or more above ideal body weight

42

morbid obesity

body mass index (BMI) of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight

43

panhypopituitarism

total pituitary impairment that brings about a progressive and general loss of hormone activity

44

pheochromocytoma

small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla, causing elevated heart rate and blood

45

thyroid storm

crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism caused by the release into the bloodstream of an increased amount of thyroid hormone; also called thyroid crisis or thyrotoxic crisis

46

virilism

masculinization or development of male secondary sex characteristics in a woman

47

exophthalmometry

measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball (exophthalmos) as seen in Graves disease

48

parathyroidectomy

excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands, usually to control hyperparathyroidism

49

transsphenoidal hypophysectomy

endoscopic procedure to surgically remove a pituitary tumor through an incision in the sphenoid sinus (transsphenoidal) without disturbing brain tissue

50

thymectomy

excision of the thymus gland

51

thyroidectomy

excision of the entire thyroid gland (thyroidectomy), a part of it (subtotal thyroidectomy), or a single lobe (thyroid lobectomy)

52

fasting blood sugar

test that measures glucose levels in a blood sample following a fast of at least 8 hours

53

glucose tolerance test (GTT)

screening test in which a dose of glucose is administered and blood samples are taken afterward at regular intervals to determine how quickly glucose is cleared from the blood

54

insulin tolerence test (ITT)

diagnostic test in which insulin is injected into vein to assess pituitary function, adrenal function, and to determine insulin sensitivity

55

thyroid function test (TFT)

test that detects an increase or decrease in thyroid function

56

total calcium test

test that measures calcium to detect bone and parathyroid disorders

57

computed tomography (CT)

imaging technique that rotates an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measures the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles

58

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field, rather than an x-ray beam, to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images

59

radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU)

administration of a radioactive iodine (RAI) in a pill or liquid form is used as a tracer to test how quickly the thyroid gland takes up (uptake) iodine from the blood

60

thyroid scan

images of the thyroid gland are obtained after oral or intravenous administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine

61

antidiuretics

reduce or control excretion of urine

vasopression: Pitressin, Pressyn

62

antithyroids

treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone

(are administered in preparation for a thyroidectomy and in thyrotoxic crisis)

methimazole: Topazole
strong iodine solution: Lugol's solution

63

corticosteroids

replace hormones lost in adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)

(are widely used to suppress inflammation, control allergic reactions, reduce rejection in transplantation, and treat some cancers)

cortisone: Cortisone acetate
hydrocortisone: A-Hydrocort, Cortef

64

growth hormone replacements

increase skeletal growth in children and growth hormone deficiencies in adults

somatropin (recombinant): Humatrope, Norditropin

65

insulins

lower blood glucose levels by promoting its entrance into body cells and converting glucose to glycogen

regular insulin: Humulin R, Novolin R
NPH insulin: Humulin N, Novolin N, Humlin
insulin aspart: Novolog

66

oral antidiabetics

treat type 2 diabetes mellitus by stimulating the pancreas to produce more insulin and decrease peripheral resistance to insulin

glipizide: Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL
metformin: Glucophage

67

thyroid supplements

replace or supplement thyroid hormones

levothyroxine: Levo-T, Levoxyl, Synthroid
liothyronine: Cytomel, Triostat

68

ACTH

adrenocorticotropic stimulating hormone

69

ADH

antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin)

70

DI

diabetes insipidus; diagnostic imaging

71

DKA

diabetic ketoacidosis

72

DM

diabetes mellitus

73

FBS

fasting blood sugar

74

FSH

follicle-stimulating hormone

75

GH

growth hormone

76

GTT

glucose tolerance test

77

HRT

hormone replacement therapy

78

K

potassium

79

LH

luteinizing hormone

80

NPH

neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)

81

PRL

prolactin

82

PGH

pituitary growth hormone

83

PTH

parathyroid hormone; also called parathormone

84

RAI

radioactive iodine

85

RAIU

radioactive iodine uptake

86

T3

triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone)

87

T4

thyroxine (thyroid hormone)

88

TFT

thyroid function test

89

TSH

thyroid-stimulating hormone

90

tumor of the thymus

thymoma

91

destruction of glucose (by enzymes)

glycolysis

92

much thirst

polydipsia

93

removal of a stone from the pancreas

pancreatolithectomy

94

(glands that) secrete within (the blood)

endocrine

95

without thirst

adipsia

96

(glands that) secrete outward (through ducts)

exocrine

97

blood condition of excessive sugar

hyperglycemia

98

destruction of the thymus

thymolysis

99

enlargement of the thyroid gland

thyromegaly

100

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenalitis

101

blood condition of below (normal) calcium

hypocalcemia

102

blood condition of excessive potassium

hyperkalemia

103

enlargement of the extremities

acromegaly

104

process of recording (x-ray) the pancreas

pancreatography

105

blood condition of excessive glucose

hyperglycemia

106

blood condition of deficiency of glucose

hypoglycemia

107

formation of glycogen

glycogenesis

108

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

109

destruction of the pancreas

pancreatolysis

110

disease of the pancreas

pancreatopathy

111

inflammation of the thyroid gland

thyroiditis

112

enlargement of the thyroid

thyromegaly

113

adrenomegaly

enlargement of adrenal glands

114

endocrinology

study of endocrine glands (and their functions)

115

glycosuria

abnormal amount of glucose in the urine

116

homeostasis

state of equilibrium in the internal environment of the body

117

kalemia

potassium in the blood

118

pancreatotomy

incision of the pancreas

119

hyperthyroidism

condition of excessive thyroid gland (function)

120

toxicologist

specialist in the study of poisons

121

androgen

any steroid hormone that increase masculinization

122

thyrotoxic

pertaining to poison (associated with) the thyroid gland

123

glycosuria

glucose in the urine

124

euthryoid

resembling a normal thyroid gland

125

hypoinsulinism

condition of deficiency of insulin

126

polyuria

excessive urination

127

acromegaly

hypersecretion of GH that causes soft tissue and bones of the face, hands, and feet to grow larger than normal

128

hypothyroidism acquired in adulthood

myxedema

129

excessive growth of hair in unusual places, especially in women

hirsutism

130

hypothyroidism that appears as a congenital condition and is commonly associated with other endocrine abnormalities

cretinism

131

crisis of uncontrolled hyperthyroidism

thyroid storm

132

caused by deficiency in the secretion of adrenocortical hormones

Addison disease

133

characterized by protrusion of the eyeballs, increased heart rate action, enlargement of the thyroid gland, weight loss, and nervousness

exophthalmic goiter

134

excessive amount of potassium in the blood

hyperkalemia

135

small chromaffin cell tumor, usually located in the adrenal medulla

pheochromocytoma

136

insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; occurs commonly in children and adolescents (juvenile onset)

type 1 diabetes

137

decreased concentration of sodium in the blood

hyponatremia

138

abnormal presence of glucose in the urine

glycosuria

139

metabolic disorder caused by hypersecretion of the adrenal cortex resulting in excessive production of glucocorticoids, mainly cortisol

Cushing syndrome

140

non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; occurs later in life (maturity onset)

type 2 diabetes

141

measure circulating glucose level after a 12 hour fast

FBS - fasting blood sugar

142

measures thryoid functions and monitors how quickly ingested iodine is taken into the thyroid gland

RAIU

143

replacement hormones for adrenal insufficiency (Addison disease)

corticosteroids

144

increases skeletal growth in children

growth hormone

145

thyroid gland images are taken following administration of a small dose of radioactive iodine in order to detect thyroid abnormalities

thyroid scan

146

thyroxine

T4

147

used to treat type 2 diabetes

oral antidiabetics

148

test commonly used to help diagnose diabetes or other disorders that affect carbohydrate metabolism

GTT

149

used to treat hyperthyroidism by impeding the formation of T3 and T4 hormone

antithyroids

150

partial or complete excision of the pituitary gland

hypophysectomy

151

triiodothyronine

T3

152

noninvasive imaging technique that uses radio waves and a strong magnetic field to produce multiplanar cross-sectional images

MRI

153

test that measures the degree of forward displacement of the eyeball as seen in Graves disease

exophthalmometry

154

imaging technique achieved by rotating an x-ray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles; used to detect disease in soft body tissues, such as the pancreas, thyroid, and adrenal glands

CT scan

155

trade name for all human genetically produced insulins

Humulin

156

The hypophysis is known as the

pituitary gland

157

Which endocrine gland is located behind the sternum?

thymus

158

In the term adrogen, andro means

male

159

Which hormone is produced by the testes?

testosterone

160

What condition is characterized by excessive amounts of potassium in the blood?

hyperkalemia

161

Excessive production of thyroid hormone is a life-threatening crisis known as

thyrotoxicosis

162

What term means disease of the adrenal glands?

adrenopathy

163

What procedure involves excision of the pancreas?

pancreatectomy

164

Which diagnostic test uses radio waves rather than an x-ray beam to identify a pancreatic tumor?

MRI

165

Insulin replacement therapy is always used in the treatment of?

type 1 diabetes


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