Chapter 2 -- Terms Pertaining to the Body as a Whole

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The Language of Medicine (10th ed), Chabner.
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College: Second year
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1

abdomin/o

abdomen

2

adip/o

fat

3

anter/o

front

4

bol/o

to cast (throw)

5

cervic/o

neck

6

chondr/o

cartilage

7

chrom/o

color

8

coccyg/o

coccyx (tailbone)

9

crani/o

skull

10

cyt/o

cell

11

dist/o

far, distant

12

dors/o

back portion of the body

13

hist/o

tissue

14

ili/o

ilium

15

inguin/o

groin

16

kary/o

nucleus

17

later/o

side

18

lumb/o

lower back

19

medi/o

middle

20

nucle/o

nucleus

21

pelv/o

pelvic, hip region

22

poster/o

back, behind

23

proxim/o

nearest

24

sacr/o

sacrum

25

sarc/o

flesh

26

spin/o

spine, backbone

27

thel/o, theli/o

nipple

28

thorac/o

chest

29

trache/o

trachea

30

umbilic/o

naval, umbilicus

31

ventr/o

belly side of the body

32

vertebr/o

vertebrae

33

viscer/o

internal organs

34

ana-

up

35

cata-

down

36

epi-

above

37

hypo-

below

38

inter-

between

39

meta-

change

40

-eal

pertaining to

41

-iac

pertaining to

42

-ior

pertaining to

43

-ism

process, condition

44

-ose

pertaining to, full of

45

-plasm

formation

46

-somes

bodies

47

-type

picture, classification

48

abdomen

region below the chest containing internal organs

49

abdominal cavity

cavity below the chest containing digestive organs

50

adipose

collection of fat cells

51

anabolism

process of building up proteins in a cell

52

anterior

front surface of the body

53

cartilage

flexible connective tissue at joints

54

catabolism

process whereby complex nutrients are broken down to simpler substances and energy is released

55

caudal

below another structure

56

cell membrane

a thin, semi-permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell

57

cephalic

above another structure

58

cervical

region of the neck

59

chondroma

tumor of cartilage

60

chondrosarcoma

malignant tumor

61

chromosome

nuclear structures

62

coccygeal

region of the tailbone

63

coccyx

tailbone

64

cranial activity

activity within the skull

65

craniotomy

incision of the skull

66

cytoplasm

material of the cell located outside the nucleus and yet enclosed by the cell membrane

67

deep

away from the surface

68

diaphragm

muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities

69

disk

pad of cartilage between vertebrae

70

distal

far from the point of attachment

71

dorsal

pertaining to the back

72

endoplasmic reticulum

network of canals within the cytoplasm; site of protein synthesis

73

epigastric region

above the stomach

74

epithelial cells

pertaining to skin surface cells

75

frontal plane

vertical plane dividing the body or structure into anterior and posterior portions

76

genes

regions of DNA within a chromosome

77

histology

the study of tissues

78

hypochondriac region

beneath the ribs

79

hypogastric region

below the umbilical region

80

iliac

pelvic area

81

inferior

below another structure

82

inguinal region

near the groin

83

intervertebral

situated between vertebrae

84

karyotype

picture of the chromosomes in the cell nucleus

85

larynx

voice box

86

lateral

pertaining to the side

87

lumbar region

region of the waist

88

lumbosacral

relating to the lumbar vertebrae and the sacrum

89

medial

pertaining to the middle

90

mediastinum

space between the lungs

91

metabolism

total of the chemical processes in a cell

92

mitochondria

sausage-shaped cellular structures in which catabolism takes place

93

nucleic

pertaining to the nucleus

94

nucleus

control center of the cell that contains chromosomes

95

pelvic cavity

space below the abdomen containing portions of the intestines, rectum, urinary bladder, and reproductive organs

96

peritoneum

double-folded membrane surrounding the abdominal caivty

97

pharynx

throat

98

pituitary gland

endocrine gland at the base of the brain

99

pleura

membrane surrounding the lungs

100

pleural cavity

space between the pleural layers

101

posterior

back side of the body

102

prone

lying on the belly

103

proximal

near the point of attachment

104

sacral

region of the sacrum

105

sacrum

region of the sacral

106

sagittal plane

lengthwise vertical plane dividing the body into right and left sides

107

sarcoma

tumor of flesh tissue (malignant)

108

spinal cavity

space withing the spinal column containing the spinal cord

109

spinal column

bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity

110

spinal cord

nervous tissue within the spinal cavity

111

superficial

on the surface

112

superior

above another structure

113

supine

lying on the back

114

thoracic cavity

cavity in the chest surrounded by ribs

115

thoracotomy

incision of the chest wall

116

thyroid gland

endocrine gland surrounding the windpipe in the neck

117

trachea

windpipe

118

tracheal

pertaining to the trachea

119

transverse plane

horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower portions

120

umbilical region

central region near the naval

121

ureter

tube from the kidney to the urinary bladder

122

urethra

tube from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body

123

uterus

womb

124

ventral

pertaining to the front

125

vertebra

single backbone

126

vertebrae

backbones

127

vertebral

pertaining to the vertebrae

128

viscera

internal organs

129

visceral

pertaining to internal organs


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