Nursing Research Quiz 2
(of a rate or other figure) expressed in terms of a certain amount, without making allowance for changes in real value over time.
denoting a certain position in a sequence of numbers
a. A set of numbers consisting of all the numbers between a pair of given numbers along with either, both, or none of the endpoints.
b. A closed interval.
c. An open interval.
d. A half-open interval.
e. A line segment representing the set of numbers in an interval.
Relation in degree or number between two similar things.
Explains the nature of relationships in the world;
Correlational studies are used to look for relationships between variables. There are three possible results of a correlational study: a positive correlation, a negative correlation, and no correlation. The correlation coefficient is a measure of correlation strength and can range from –1.00 to +1.00.
Design used to identify a phenomenon of interest, identify variables within the phenomenon, develop conceptual and operational definitions of variables and describe variables
Cross-sectional: Cross-sectional studies (also known as cross-sectional analyses, transversal studies, prevalence study) form a class of research methods that involve observation of all of a population, or a representative subset, at one specific point in time.
A longitudinal study is a correlational research study that involves repeated observations of the same variables over long periods of time — often many decades. It is a type of observational study.
Accuracy: Closeness of computations or estimates to the exact or true values that the statistics were intended to measure
• Process of assigning numbers or
values to individuals
• Concerned with the consistency of the
• Testing focuses on equivalence, stability and
The difference between the true
measure and what is actually
measured ( B & G, 2009).
• Exists in both direct and indirect
• Types : Random & Systematic
In science and statistics, validity is the extent to which a concept, conclusion or measurement is well-founded and corresponds accurately to the real world. The word "valid" is derived from the Latin validus, meaning strong. The validity of a measurement tool (for example, a test in education) is considered to be the degree to which the tool measures what it claims to measure.
Sensitivity: Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as classification function. Sensitivity (also called the true positive rate, or the recall rate in some fields) measures the proportion of actual positives which are correctly identified as such (e.g. the percentage of sick people who are correctly identified as having the condition).
Specificity: Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctlydentified as not having the condition, sometimes called the true negative rate).
Specificity: Specificity measures the proportion of negatives which are correctly identified as such (e.g. the percentage of healthy people who are correctly identified as not having the condition, sometimes called the true negative rate).
1. Of or relating to physiology.
2. Being in accord with or characteristic of the normal functioning of a living organism.
3. Of or being an additive primary color.
Diagnostic screening measures
Questionnaires: A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents
Interviews: An interview is a conversation between two or more people where questions are asked by the interviewer to elicit facts or statements from the interviewee. Interviews are a standard part of journalism and media reporting, but are also employed in many other situations, including qualitative research.
A Likert scale is a psychometric scale commonly involved in research that employs questionnaires.
The format of a typical five-level Likert item, for example, could be:
• Strongly disagree
• Neither agree nor disagree
Visual analog scales
Visual analog scales:The visual analogue scale or visual analog scale (VAS) is a psychometric response scale which can be used in questionnaires. It is a measurement instrument for subjective characteristics or attitudes that cannot be directly measured. When responding to a VAS item, respondents specify their level of agreement to a statement by indicating a position along a continuous line between two end-points.
Serendipity: The occurrence and development of events by chance in a happy or beneficial way.
Phenomenon: A fact or situation that is observed to exist or happen esp. one whose cause or explanation is in question.
Probability theory: Branch of Mathmatics concerned with prpobabilty, the analysis of random phenomena.
Decision theory: Concerned with identifying the values, uncertainties and other issues relevant in a given decision
Psychological Theory of learning
In the basic experimental framework, the subject is presented with a series of multidimensional stimuli, and provided feedback about the class of the stimulus on each trial. (Two class problems are typical.) The framework is thus in many ways similar to that of concept learning.
In contrast to earlier association-type theories, the Hypothesis Theory argues that subjects solve this problem (i.e., learn the correct response for each stimulus), by testing a series of hypotheses about the relation of the cue values (stimulus features) to the class. For example, a candidate hypothesis for stimuli that vary along the three dimensions of shape, color, and size might be
Level of significance
The probability of a false rejection of the null hypothesis in a statistical test. Also called significance level.
Self-determination: 1. Determination of one's own fate or course of action without compulsion; free will.
2. Freedom of the people of a given area to determine their own political status; independence
1. the power or ability to make a decision for oneself without influence from outside
2. (Government, Politics & Diplomacy) the right of a nation or people to determine its own form of government without influence from outside
full disclosure: In the field of computer security, independent researchers often discover flaws in software that can be abused to cause unintended behaviour, these flaws are called vulnerabilities.
Risk-benefit ratio: Risk–benefit analysis is the comparison of the risk of a situation to its related benefits.
Principles of respect and beneficence
Department of Health
Department of Health: The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government with the goal of protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. Its motto is "Improving the health, safety, and well-being of America". Before the separate federal Department of Education was created in 1979, it was called the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW)
Education and Welfare
Department of Justice
Department of Justice: The United States Department of Justice (DOJ), also known as the Justice Department, is the U.S. federal executive department responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries.
National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research
The commission identified three ethical principles:
- respect for persons: people should be treated as autonomous agents
- beneficence: encourages researchers to go good and above all do no harm.
Ethics in research
HIPAA: The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA; Pub.L. 104–191, 110 Stat. 1936, enacted August 21, 1996) was enacted by the United States Congress and signed by President Bill Clinton in 1996.
Plagiarism: Plagiarism is the "wrongful appropriation" and "purloining and publication" of another author's "language, thoughts, ideas, or expressions," and the representation of them as one's own original work. The idea remains problematic with unclear definitions and unclear rules. The modern concept of plagiarism as immoral and originality as an ideal emerged in Europe only in the 18th century, particularly with the Romantic movement.
Tuskegee experiment: The Tuskegee syphilis experiment was an infamous clinical study conducted between 1932 and 1972 by the U.S. Public Health Service to study the natural progression of untreated syphilis in rural African American men who thought they were receiving free health care from the U.S. government.
The Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute, began the study in 1932. Investigators enrolled in the study a total of 600 impoverished sharecroppers from Macon County, Alabama; 399 who had previously contracted syphilis before the study began, and 201 without the disease. For participating in the study, the men were given free medical care, meals, and free burial insurance. They were never told they had syphilis, nor were they ever treated for it. According to the Centers for Disease Control, the men were told they were being treated for "bad blood", a local term for various illnesses that include syphilis, anemia, and fatigue.
The 40-year study was controversial for reasons related to ethical standards; primarily because researchers knowingly failed to treat patients appropriately after the 1940s validation of penicillin as an effective cure for the disease they were studying. Revelation of study failures by a whistleblower led to major changes in U.S. law and regulation on the protection of participants in clinical studies. Now studies require informed consent (though foreign consent procedures can be substituted which offer similar protections; such substitutions must be submitted to the Federal Register unless statute or Executive Order require otherwise), communication of diagnosis, and accurate reporting of test results.
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
Between 1932 and 1972, the U.S. Public Health Service funded a study to evaluate the natural history of untreated syphilis in human beings. When the study was conceptualized, the basic concept was considered scientifically important and ethically justifiable because there was no known treatment for the disease. The research population included one of the most vulnerable research populations-approximately 300 mostly indigent African-American sharecroppers in Macon County, Alabama.
Willowbrook Study: This study took place from 1963 to 1966 at Willowbrook State School in New York State. Willowbrook was a school for mentally challenged individuals. In this study, children were purposely infected with the hepatitis virus from contaminated stools. Early on, subjects were given "extracts of stools" and were later on given injections of "more purified virus preparations."Researchers reasoned that the subjects would have gotten the hepatitis virus at Willowbrook anyways because outbreaks of hepatitis had occured here. The study was done to get a better understanding of infectious hepatitis, and to also "test the effects of gamma globulin in preventing or ameliorating the disease." Researchers often only allowed new admissions to those parents who agreed to have their children take part in the Willowbrook studies. Many see this study as unethical since the subjects and their parents knew little about what was going on, and also had little choice about participating in the study or not.
Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Study
Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital Study (1963)
Experiments were performed on chronically ill, mostly demented patients in the Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital. The purpose of the research was to determine how a weakened immune system influenced the spread of cancer. To evaluate this, live cancer cells were injected into the bloodstream of the subjects.
A single experimental random control trial
Meta-analysis of correlational studies
Qualitative research synthesis, meta-synthesis and meta-summaries
research synthesis: the process and product of systematically reviewing and formally integrating the findings from qualitative studies.
Meta-synthesis: Provides a fully integrated, novel description or explanation of target event or experience versus a summary view of that event or experience.
Meta-summaries: synthesis or summing of the findings across qualitative reports to develop a description of current knowledge in an area.
Single correlational studies
Primary and secondary sources
A primary source is a document or physical object which was written or created during the time under study. These sources were present during an experience or time period and offer an inside view of a particular event.
What is a secondary source?
A secondary source interprets and analyzes primary sources. These sources are one or more steps removed from the event. Secondary sources may have pictures, quotes or graphics of primary sources in them.
the state or degree of being easily or conveniently done.
Performing statistical analyses to integrate and synthesize from competed studies to determine what is known and what is not known about about a particular research area.
A theoretical framework refers to how the researcher or writer of the report not only questions, but ponders and develops thoughts or theories on what the possible answers could be, then this thoughts and theories are grouped together into themes that frame the subject. It is the process of identifying a core set of connectors within a topic and showing how they fit together.
Causality: the relationship of cause and effect
Control: a group or individual used as a standard of comparison for checking the results of a survey or experiment.
Bias: A statistic is biased if it is calculated in such a way that is systematically different from the population parameter of interest. The following lists some types of, or aspects of, bias which should not be considered mutually exclusive:
• Selection bias, where individuals or groups are more likely to take part in a research project than others, resulting in biased samples. This can also be termed Berksonian bias.
• Spectrum bias arises from evaluating diagnostic tests on biased patient samples, leading to an overestimate of the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
• The bias of an estimator is the difference between an estimator's expectations and the true value of the parameter being estimated.
• Omitted-variable bias is the bias that appears in estimates of parameters in a regression analysis when the assumed specification is incorrect, in that it omits an independent variable that should be in the model.
• In statistical hypothesis testing, a test is said to be unbiased when the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis is less than or equal to the significance level when the null hypothesis is true, and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis is greater than or equal to the significance level when the alternative hypothesis is true,
• Detection bias is where a phenomenon is more likely to be observed and/or reported for a particular set of study subjects. For instance, the syndemic involving obesity and diabetes may mean doctors are more likely to look for diabetes in obese patients than in less overweight patients, leading to an inflation in diabetes among obese patients because of skewed detection efforts.
• Funding bias may lead to selection of outcomes, test samples, or test procedures that favor a study's financial sponsor.
• Reporting bias involves a skew in the availability of data, such that observations of a certain kind may be more likely to be reported and consequently used in research.
• Data-snooping bias comes from the misuse of data mining techniques.
• Analytical bias arise due to the way that the results are evaluated.
• Exclusion bias arise due to the systematic exclusion of certain individuals from the study.
Probability: Probability is a measure or estimation of how likely it is that something will happen or that a statement is true. Probabilities are given a value between 0 (0% chance or will not happen) and 1 (100% chance or will happen). The higher the degree of probability, the more likely the event is to happen, or, in a longer series of samples, the greater the number of times such event is expected to happen.
Muti-causality: Multiple causation is the mutual effect by many different forces to cause a particular human action.