ch 6-9: skeletal system and articulations

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1

axial skeleton

skull, ribs, vertebrae

2

Apendicular Skeleton

arms and legs

3

Endochonral bones (4)

1. long bones: femur, radius
2. short bones: tarsal, and carple
3. flat bones: frontal bone
4. irregular bones: vertebra

4

1. Wormian bones
2. Sesamoid bones

1. sutural bones
2. patella

5
card image

...

6

diaphysis

shaft of bone

7

epiphysis

expanded, knobby region each end of long bone

8

metaphysis

region of mature bone sandwiched between epiphysis and diaphysis

9

epiphyseal line

(epiphyseal plate) thin layer of compact bone

10

articular cartilage

thin layer of hyaline cartilage cobering the epiphysis at a joint surface

11

medulary cavity

hollow, cylindrical space w/in the diaphysis

12

endostium

incomplete layer of cells that covers all internal surfaces of the bone

13

periostium

tough sheath that covers the outer surfaces of bone

14

perforating fibers

strong collagen fibers that anchor the periosteum to bone

15

cells of bone (4)

1. Osteoprogenitor cell
2. osteoblasts
3. osteocyte
4. osteoclast

16

Cells of bone
1. Osteoprogenitor cell

stem cells derived from mesenchyme

17

Cells of bone
2. Osteoblasts
-secrete what?

bone forming cells
- Osteoid: semisolid, organic form of bone; later hardens as a resultof calcium deposition

18

Cells of Bone
3. Osteocyte

bone cell in a lacunae; matures bone cells derived from osteoblasts, they got trapped by matrix they secreted

19

lacunae

Small space,cavity, or depression

20

Cells of Bone
4. Osteoclasts

large cell type that functions in the absorption and removal of bone tissue

21
card image

...

22

hemopoeisis

red blood cell production

23

red bone marrow
1. what is it
2. where is it located?

1. a connective tissue where RBC's are produced
2. in some spongy bone

24

endochondral ossification
steps (1-4)

1. the developing bone begins as cartilage cells
2. cartilage matrix grows inward (interstitial growth)
3. cartilage matrix grows outward (appositional growth)
4. blood vessels grow around the cartilage

25

endochondral ossification
steps (5-9)

5. Perichondrial cells convert to osteoblasts
6. osteoblasts develop a superficial layer of bone around the cartilage
7. blood vessels penetrate the cartilage
8. osteoblasts begin to develop spongy bone in the diaphysis
9. this becomes the primary center of ossification

26

endochondral ossification
steps (10-13)

10. the cartilage near the epiphysis converts to bone
11. blood vessels penetrate the epiphysis
12. osteoblasts begin to develop spongy bone in the epiphysis
13. epiphysis becomes the secondary center of ossification

27
card image
card image
28

Achondroplasic dwarf

when long bones of the limbs stop growing during childhood

29

Classification of Articulations
Functional (3)

1. synarthrosis
2. ampharthrosis
3. diarthrosis

30

Classification of Articulations
Structural (3)

1. fibrous
2. cartilaginous
3. synovial

31

Classifications of Articulations
Functional
1. Synarthrosis
2. amphiarthrosis
3. diarthrosis

1. immovable
2. slightly movable
3. freely movable

32

Classifications of Articulations
Functional
1. synarthrosis
-include (4)

A. sutures
B. gomphosis
C. synchondrosis
D. synostosis

33

Classification of Articulations
Functional
1. 1. synarthrosis
A. surutes
B. gomphosis
C. synchondrosis
D. synostosis

A. joints found only in the skull. bones are interlocked together
B. joint between teeth and jaw bones. Periodontal ligaments of the teeth
C. joint within epiphysis of bone. Binds the diaphysis to the epiphysis
D. joint between two fused bones. Fusion of the three coxal bones

34

Classifications of Articulations
Functional
2. amphiarthrosis
-include

A. Syndesmosis
B. Symphysis

35

Classification of Articulations
Functional
2. amphiarthrosis
A. Syndesmosis
B. Symphysis

A. ligaments that connect two bones but limit their motion. Between the radius and ulna, Between the tibia and fibula
B. bones are separated by a wedge or pad of cartilage. Between the pubic bones of the two coxal bones

36

Classifications of Articulations
Functional
3. Diarthroses
A. also called...
B. typically found...
C. examples

A. synovial joints
B. at the ends of long bones
C. shoulder, elbow, hip, knee

37

Characteristics of synovial joints
(6)

1. A joint capsule
2. The presence of articular cartilages
3. A joint cavity with synovial fluid
4. A synovial membrane
5. Accessory structures (cartilage, ligaments, 6. 6. tendons, bursae sacs)
7. Sensory nerves and blood vessels

38

fibrous joints (2)

1. sutures
2. syndesmosomes

39

Cartilaginous joints (4)

1. symphyses
2. intervertebral discs
3. synchondroses
4. epiphyseal plates

40

synovial joints

1. synovial membrane
2. synovial cavity w/ synovial fluid
3. articular cartilage (hyaline)
4. articular capsule (reinforced by ligaments)

41
card image

...

42

function of synovial fluid (3)

1. Lubricates
2. Nourishes chondrocytes
3. Acts as shock absorber

43
card image

...

44

types of movement (4.

1. linear movements
2. angular movements
3. rotation
4. special movements

45
card image

1. initial position
2. linear motion
3. angular motion
4. circumduction
5. rotation

46

movement types
1. linear movement
-examples (3)
2. Angular movements
- examples (2)

1. two bones gliding past each other
- Carpal/carpal, tarsal/tarsal, clavicle/sternum
2. abduction/adduction, flexion/extendion

47

movement types
3. Rotational movements
4. special movements
- examples (6)

3. pronation/supination
4. inversion/eversion, dorsiflexion/plantar flexion, lateral flexion, protraction/retraction, opposition, depression/elevation

48

structural classification of joints (6)

1. plane joints 4. condylar joints
2. hinge joints 5. saddle joints
3. pivot joints 6. ball and socket joints

49

structural classification of joints
1. plane joints
2. hinge joints
3. pivot joints

1. gliding joints
A. Nonaxial (glides only in one direction)
B. Multiaxial (glides in all directions
2. Flexion and extension
3. Rotational movements

50

structural classification of joints
4. condylar joints
5. saddle joints
6. ball and socket joints

1. Oval articular surface on one bone articulates with a depression on another bone
2. Biaxial joints that allow some circumduction
3. Triaxial joints

51

structural classification of joints
4. condylar joints examples
5. saddle joints examples
6. ball and socket joints examples

4. Radius/capitulum, Radius/carpals, Phalanges/metacarpals, Phalanges/metatarsals
5. Pollex/metacarpal
6. Shoulder joint, Hip joint

52

synovial joints
accessory structures

1. synovial joint cavity
2. articular (hyaline) cartilage
3. articular capsule
4. synovial fluid
5. accessory ligaments

53

synovial joints
-accessory structures
1. synovial joint cavity
3. articular capsule

1. a space that contains small amounts of synovial fluid.
3. double layered capsule around sunovial joint

54

Articular capsule
-includes

1. fibrous capsule
2. synovial membrane

55

Articular Capsule
1. fibrous capsule
2. sunocial membrane

1. outer layer, dense CT, strengthens joint so bones don't pull apart
2. inner layer, areolar CT,covers internal joint structure and secretes synovial fluid

56

synovial fluid
functions (3)

1. lubricates
2. nourishes
3. shock absorber (protection)

57

Accessory ligaments
-include

1. Bursa
2. articular discs

58

Accessory ligaments
1. Bursa

fibrous sacks like structure that contains synovial fluid and is lined by synovial memb.

59

Arthritis=
-includes

= inflamatory or degenerative diseases of joints
1. Osteoarthritis
2. Rheumatoid arthritis
3. Gouty arthritis


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