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A&P chapter 6

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1

Bones are constantly undergoing resorption for various reasons. Which of the following cells accomplishes this process?

A. stem cell
B. osteocyte
C. osteoblast
D. osteoclast

osteoclast

2

The notable hardness of bone is attributed to ________.

the presence of glycoproteins
the presence of cartilage
the presence of proteoglycans
the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites
the presence of collagen fibers

the presence of inorganic hydroxyapatites

3
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The indicated blood vessels and nerve are found within a ______.

marrow cavity
Perforating (Volkmann's) canal
Central (Haversian) canal
caniculus

Central (Haversian) canal

4

When should prevention of osteoporosis start?

The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.

The prevention of osteoporosis should start in early old age, to prevent a decrease in bone density in the future.

The prevention of osteoporosis should begin young adults, to increase the bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis.

The prevention of osteoporosis should start in middle age, to counter the gradual loss of bone density as we get old.

The prevention of osteoporosis should begin with children while bones are still growing. Children should increase their bone mass to provide additional protection from osteoporosis in the future.

5

The term diploë refers to the ________.

fact that most bones are formed of two types of bone tissue

double-layered nature of the connective tissue covering the bone

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

two types of marrow found within most bones

internal layer of spongy bone in flat bones

6

Cartilage grows in two ways, appositional and interstitial. What is appositional growth?

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

the lengthening of hyaline cartilage

growth at the epiphyseal plate

along the edges only of existing osteons, making each osteon larger

the secretion of new matrix against the external face of existing cartilage

7

In adults, yellow marrow is located ________.

in the epiphyseal plates of long bones

in the central canals of osteons

in the medullary cavity of long bones

primarily in flat bones

in the medullary cavity of long bones

8

The osteon is ________.

a fibrous membrane that covers and protects bone

the structural unit of compact bone

the structural unit of spongy bone

a network of red marrow

the structural unit of compact bone

9

The pituitary gland is housed in the ________.

sinuses of the ethmoid bone

vomer

foramen lacerum

sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

sella turcica of the sphenoid bone

10
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In which step (A-D) does the formation of compact bone first occur?

A
B
C
D

D

11

Why, or why not, is swimming recommended as an exercise to prevent osteoporosis?

Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.

Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as forces are applied in all directions on the bones simultaneously in swimming.

Swimming is recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as forces are applied in all directions on the bones simultaneously.

Swimming is recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is considered a weight-bearing exercise.

Swimming is not recommended to prevent osteoporosis, as it is not considered a weight-bearing exercise.

12

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

spongy bone
the osteon
lamellar bone
osseous matrix

the osteon

13

Which bone cells form bone?

osteoclasts
osteoblasts
osteocytes
chondroblasts

osteoblasts

14

Which hormone increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions into the bloodstream?

thyroxine
calcitonin
parathyroid hormone
estrogen

parathyroid hormone

15

The structural unit of compact bone (osteon) resembles the growth rings of a tree trunk.

T
F

True

16

Cranial bones develop ________.

from cartilage models
from a tendon
within fibrous membranes
within osseous membranes

within fibrous membranes

17
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A step in which bone-forming process is shown in the figure?

bone fracture repair
endochondral ossification
intramembrounous ossification
bone remodeling

endochondral ossification

18
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The above figure depicts which of the following bone-forming processes?

bone repair at a site of fracture

intramembranous ossification during embryonic development

endochondral ossification during bone formation and growth

bone remodeling in response to changes in mechanical stress

intramembranous ossification during embryonic development

19

Hematopoiesis refers to the formation of blood cells within the red marrow cavities of certain bones.

T
F

T

20

For intramembranous ossification to take place, which of the following is necessary?

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

A medullary cavity forms.

A bone collar forms around the cartilage model.

The cartilage matrix begins to deteriorate

An ossification center forms in the fibrous connective tissue.

21
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Which of the following substances is NOT a component of the osteoid material secreted by the cells indicated by the arrow in panel A?

collagen
glycoprotein
proteoglycan
calcium

calcium

22
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During bone growth, which significant event occurs at the surface indicated by the letter C?

bone resorption
expansion of the articular cartilage
appositional growth
conversion of spongy bone to compact bone

appositional growth

23

Which description of bone cells is INCORRECT?

Osteoclasts secrete digestive enzymes and hydrogen ions.

Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.

Bone lining cells on the internal surfaces of bone are also called endosteal cells.

Osteoblasts secrete collagen and calcium-binding proteins.

Osteogenic cells can differentiate into osteoclasts.

24

Which of the following glands or organs produces hormones that tend to decrease blood calcium levels?

pineal gland
spleen
thyroid
parathyroid

thyroid

25

In some cases the epiphyseal plate of the long bones of children closes too early. What might be the cause?

osteoblast activity exceeds osteoclast activity
elevated levels of sex hormones
overproduction of thyroid hormone
too much vitamin D in the diet

elevated levels of sex hormones

26

The canal that runs through the core of each osteon (the Haversian canal) is the site of ________.

yellow marrow and spicules
cartilage and interstitial lamellae
adipose tissue and nerve fibers
blood vessels and nerve fibers

blood vessels and nerve fibers

27
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In which of the labeled parts of the adult long bone would hematopoietic tissue be located?

A
B
C
D
E

B

28

Ossification of the ends of long bones ________.

takes twice as long as diaphysis ossification

involves medullary cavity formation

is a characteristic of intramembranous bone
formation

is produced by secondary ossification centers

is produced by secondary ossification centers

29

The periosteum is a tissue that serves only to protect the bone because it is not supplied with nerves or blood vessels.

T
F

F

30

Short, irregular, and flat bones have large marrow cavities in order to keep the weight of the bones light.

T
F

F

31

The hormone that is primarily involved in the control of bone remodeling is the parathyroid hormone.

T
F

T

32

Which of the following is a bone marking name that indicates an armlike bar of bone?

epicondyle
fossa
meatus
foramen
ramus

ramus

33

How can a tooth be moved in a bony socket during orthodontic treatment?

Teeth are avascular, allowing part of the tooth to be removed for repositioning.

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reformed, while the bone on the reverse side will be reabsorbed.

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the gums will be reabsorbed and reformed to the new position of the tooth.

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.

By applying slight pressure to a tooth, the bone on the forward side will reabsorb, while the bone on the reverse side will be reformed.

34

What tissue forms the model for endochondrial ossification?

membranes
cartilage
fascia
bone

cartilage

35

Sixty-five percent of the mass of bone is a compound called hydroxyapatite.

T
F

T

36
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During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter A?

conversion of bone into cartilage
conversion of cartilage into bone
expansion of articular cartilage
expansion of the cartilage matrix

expansion of the cartilage matrix

37

Which hormone is produced in bone and regulates bone formation, but also protects against diabetes mellitus?

growth hormone
leptin
osteocalcin
calcitonin

osteocalcin

38

Osteomyelitis is ________.

caused by altered vitamin D metabolism
partially due to insufficient dietary calcium
due to pus-forming bacteria
literally known as "soft bones"

due to pus-forming bacteria

39

What controls bone remodeling?

the nervous system and hormones
mechanical stress and hormones
hormones and diet
mechanical stress and diet

mechanical stress and hormones

40

The suture that connects the two parietal bones together is the ________.

coronal
squamous
sagittal
lambdoid

sagittal

41
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What bone-associated structure in panel C is indicated by the arrow?

epiphyseal plate
trabeculae
periosteum
osteon

trabeculae

42

A Pott's fracture could result in damage to all of the following except ____________.

lateral malleolus
fibular notch
inferior tibiofibular joint
tibial condyle

tibial condyle

43
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What event precedes the step in the bone-forming process shown in the figure?

formation of a secondary ossification center
calcification of the cartilage matrix
ossification within a fibrous membrane
formation of the epiphyseal plate

calcification of the cartilage matrix

44

In newborn infants, the medullary cavity and all areas of spongy bone contain yellow bone marrow.

True
False

F

45

The correct order (from start to finish) of fracture repair is ________.

bone remodeling, hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, and bony callus formation

bony callus formation, hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, and bone remodeling

hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling

hematoma formation, bony callus formation, bone remodeling, and fibrocartilaginous callus formation

hematoma formation, fibrocartilaginous callus formation, bony callus formation, and bone remodeling

46

Yellow bone marrow contains a large percentage of ________.

elastic tissue
Sharpey's fibers
blood-forming cells
fat

fat

47

Hematopoiesis is a term for which of the following physiological processes?

bone formation during growth
bone formation during growth
blood cell formation
release of minerals into the blood
energy storage in fat tissue

blood cell formation

48
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Osteocytes are connected to each other through which structure?

caniculi
Volksmann's canal
lacuna
Haversian canal

caniculi

49
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During bone growth, which event is most significant at the surface indicated by the letter B?

formation of compact bone.
cell division of chondrocytes
calcification of the cartilage matrix
conversion of bone into cartilage

calcification of the cartilage matrix

50

Choose the TRUE statement.

Most bones in the body are formed by intramembranous ossification.

Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).

Endochondral ossification leads to the formation of the clavicles and cranial bones.

Endochondral ossification occurs within fibrous connective tissue membranes.

Endochondral ossification converts hyaline cartilage "bone" models into true bones (i.e., hyaline cartilage serves as a template for bone formation).

51
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Which of the following bones are formed by the illustrated process?

femur
vertebrae
humerus
All of the listed responses are correct.

All of the listed responses are correct.

52

The term osteoid refers to the organic part of the matrix of compact bones.

T
F

T

53

There are seven cervical, twelve thoracic, and five lumbar vertebrae.

T
F

T

54
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The illustrated bone-forming process would be associated with which of the following bones?

parietal
vertebrae
humerus
femur
All of the listed responses are correct.

parietal

55

Hyaline cartilage ________.

is the rarest of the skeletal cartilages

gives shape to the external ear

forms "shock-absorbing" pads between the vertebrae

is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

is found on the ends of bones that form movable joints

56

Which bone acts as a moveable base for the tongue?

mandible
palatine
zygomatic bone
hyoid bone

hyoid bone

57

Bones are covered and lined by a protective tissue called periosteum. The inner (osteogenic) layer consists primarily of ________.

chondrocytes and osteocytes
marrow and osteons
cartilage and compact bone
osteoblasts and osteoclasts

osteoblasts and osteoclasts

58

The structure of bone tissue suits the function. Which of the following bone tissues is adapted to support weight and withstand tension stress?

trabecular bone
irregular bone
compact bone
spongy bone

Compact bone

59

During infancy and childhood, the most important stimulus of epiphyseal plate activity is ________.

testosterone
the thyroid hormones
estrogen
growth hormone

growth hormone

60

In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows ________.

from the edges inward
in a circular fashion
by pulling the diaphysis toward the epiphysis
by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

by pushing the epiphysis away from the diaphysis

61

Which of the following is not a function of the skeletal system?

communication

support

storage of minerals

houses the bone marrow which produces blood cells (hematopoiesis)

Communication

62

The resilience of bone is primarily due to which of the following?

amount of mineral salts in the bone

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

amount of mineral salt and protein in the bone

presence of osteoblasts in the bone

sacrificial bonds in or between collagen molecules

63

The dens articulates with the axis.

T
F

F

64
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Which of the following is the major component of the part of the bone labeled E?

adipose tissue
dense connective tissue
osseous tissue
hyaline cartilage

adipose tissue

65

What is the final stage in the healing of a bone fracture?

formation of a bony callus
formation of a hematoma
bone remodeling
formation of a fibrocartilaginous callus

bone remodeling

66

Each consecutive bone lamella has collagen fibers that wrap in alternating directions.

T
F

T

67

Lengthwise, long bone growth during infancy and youth is exclusively through ________.

differentiation of osteoclasts into osteocytes

the secretion of bone matrix into the medullary cavity

calcification of the matrix of the zone underlying articular cartilage

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

interstitial growth of the epiphyseal plates

68

Which of the following is not a movement that can occur between vertebrae?

rotation
lateral flexion
flexion and extension
supination

supination

69

Closure of the epiphyseal plate stops all bone growth.

T
F

F

70

Which of the following is an abnormal lateral curvature of the vertebral column often seen in the thoracic region?

scoliosis
kyphosis
swayback
lordosis

scoliosis

71

What makes up the axial skeleton?

the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage
arms, legs, hands, and feet
the skull, vertebral column, and pelvis
shoulder and pelvic girdles

the skull, vertebral column, and rib cage

72

Which of the following is true about paranasal sinuses?

Paranasal sinuses open into the oral cavity.

Paranasal sinuses contain passages acting as one-way valves.

Paranasal sinuses are found in maxillary, ethmoid, and lacrimal bones.

Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

Paranasal sinuses enhance the resonance of the voice and lighten the skull.

73

The main role of the appendicular skeleton is to protect and support vital organs.

T
F

F

74
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The arrow in the figure is pointing to which of the following structures?

a primary ossification center
the epiphyseal plate
a secondary ossification center
articular cartilage

the epiphyseal plate

75

What causes osteoporosis?

heritage such as African or Mediterranean

poor posture

abnormal PTH receptors

Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.

Osteoclasts out-pace osteoblasts due to low hormone production of the ovaries.

76

When chondrocytes in lacunae divide and form new matrix, it leads to an expansion of the cartilage tissue from within. This process is called ________.

interstitial growth
appositional growth
calcification
hematopoiesis

interstitial growth

77
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During bone growth, which significant event occurs at the surface indicated by the letter D?

production of hyaline cartilage
interstitial growth
production of compact bone
bone resorption

bone resorption

78

Which of the following refers to a bone disorder found most often in the aged and resulting in the bones becoming porous and light?

osteomalacia
osteoporosis
rickets
Paget's disease

osteoporosis

79

Which of the following phrases best describes the function of the vertebral curves?

to accommodate muscle attachment
to improve cervical center of gravity
to provide resilience and flexibility
to accommodate the weight of the pelvic girdle

to provide resilience and flexibility

80

Mastoiditis is most likely to result from an infection spreading from the throat.

T
F

T

81
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The cells indicated by the arrow at the center of panel A arise from the differentiation of which precursor stem cell?

osteocytes
mesenchymal cells
adipose cells
chondroblasts

mesenchymal cells

82

Cartilage has a flexible matrix that can accommodate mitosis of chondrocytes.

T
F

T

83

What type of bone is the patella?

long bone
sesamoid bone
flat bone
irregular bone

sesamoid bone

84

Choose the CORRECT pairing.

osteomalacia: excessive mineralization of the bone

paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption

osteoporosis: increased bone density

rickets: deficiency of vitamin A

paget's disease: excessive and haphazard bone deposition and resorption

85

Compact bone is replaced more often than spongy bone.

T
F

F

86

What is endochondral ossification?

the formation of bone from fibrous membranes

the formation of bone from pre-existing fibrocartilage models

the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models

the formation of bone from pre-existing elastic cartilage models

the formation of bone from pre-existing hyaline cartilage models

87

Mrs. Mulligan goes to her dentist and, after having a couple of cavities filled, her dentist strongly suggests that she reduce her intake of sodas and increase her intake of calcium phosphates in the foods she eats. Why?

Sodas are strong bases that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.

Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.

Sodas contain lots of sugar that can dissolve the calcium carbonate in bone and teeth.

Sodas contain lots of sugar that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.

Sodas are carbonated, and the increased carbon dioxide can dissolve the calcium carbonate in bone and teeth.

Sodas are strong acids that can dissolve the calcium phosphate in bone and teeth.

88

Which structure allows the diaphysis of the bone to increase in length until early childhood, as well as shaping the articular surfaces?

epiphyseal plate
epiphyseal line
lacunae
Haversian system

epiphyseal plate

89

What is absolutely required for bone growth or healing from a fracture?

osteoclasts
dietary intake of calcium and vitamin D
osteoblasts
osteocytes

osteoblasts

90
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Dense connective tissue forms part of which labeled part of the adult long bone in the figure?

A
B
C
D
E

C

91

Choose the FALSE statement.

Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.

Irregular bones include the vertebrae and hip bones.

The sternum is an example of a flat bone.

Sesamoid bones form within certain tendons.

Long bones include all limb bones except the patella.

92

Wolff's law is concerned with ________.

the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

the diameter of the bone being dependent on the ratio of osteoblasts to osteoclasts

the function of bone being dependent on shape

vertical growth of bones being dependent on age

the thickness and shape of a bone being dependent on stresses placed upon it

93
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Which of the labeled parts of the bone is composed primarily of compact bone?

A
B
C
D
E

D

94

Which of the following is UNLIKELY to affect bone remodeling?

glucagon
low blood Ca2+ concentration
parathyroid hormone
mechanical stress

glucagon

95

The process of bones increasing in width is known as ________.

epiphyseal plate closure
closing of the epiphyseal plate
appositional growth
concentric growth

appositional growth

96

An osteon contains osteocytes, lamellae, and a central canal, and is found in compact bone only.

T
F

T

97

Bones are classified by whether they are weight bearing or protective in function.

T
F

F

98

A fracture in the shaft of a bone would be a break in the ________.

metaphysis
articular cartilage
epiphysis
diaphysis

diaphysis

99

The periosteum is secured to the underlying bone by dense connective tissue called ________.

the struts of bone known as spicules
perforating (Sharpey's) fibers
a bony matrix with hyaline cartilage
Volkmann's canals

perforating (Sharpey's) fibers

100

Alice and James adopted a 3-year-old child from a developing country. They noticed that her legs were bowed and there were some deformities in her cranial and pelvic bones. They brought her to a physician for a diagnosis. What was the diagnosis, and what was the treatment for the disorder?

The child most likely has Paget's disease. Treatment includes drug therapy with administration of calcitonin and bisphosphonates.

The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.

The child most likely has osteomalacia. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.

The child most likely has osteoporosis. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D, and performance of weight-bearing exercises.

The child most likely has rickets. Treatment is to increase the intake of calcium and vitamin D in the diet, and to get some sunshine every day.

101
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The structures in the figure collectively form a structural unit termed a(n) ______.

Haversian canal
osteon
trebeculae
diploe

osteon

102

Osteogenesis is the process of ________.

bone formation
making collagen fibers for calcified cartilage
making a cartilage model of the fetal bone
bone destruction to liberate calcium

bone formation

103

Which of the following hormones is currently thought to decrease plasma calcium levels in pregnant women and children?

parathyroid hormone (PTH)
calcitonin
thyroid hormones
calcitriol

calcitonin

104

PTH promotes the formation of which hormone?

thyroid hormones
vitamin D
calcitriol
calcitonin

calcitriol

105

Which of the following would NOT be a way that parathyroid hormone (PTH) could alter plasma calcium levels? (Which one of the following is FALSE?)

increase osteoblasts on bone
increase osteoclasts
increase reabsorption of calcium in the kidney

increase osteoblasts on bone

106

Which hormone works directly in the intestine to increase plasma calcium levels?

calcitonin
calcitriol
parathyroid hormone (PTH)

calcitriol

107
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Which of the labeled parts of the bone is composed primarily of hyaline cartilage?

A
B
C
D
E

A

108
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A step in what bone forming process is shown in the figure?

endochondral ossification
intramembranous ossification
bone fracture repair
bone remodeling

endochondral ossification

109

Bones do NOT have a role in ________.

blood cell formation
glycogen production
movement
support
fat storage

glycogen production

110

The membranous areas between the cranial bones of the fetal skull are called ________.

areolas
foramina
fontanelles
sutures

fontanelles

111

What is osteoid?

the outer surface of bone
the organic part of the matrix of bone
the inorganic part of the matrix of bone
one of the cell types found in bone

the organic part of the matrix of bone

112

The cell responsible for secreting the matrix of bone is the ________.

osteoclast
osteoblast
chondrocyte
osteocyte

osteoblast

113
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The structure indicated by the arrow is composed primarily of what material?

hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
compact bone
dense connective tissue

hyaline cartilage

114

What can a deficiency of growth hormone during bone formation cause?

inadequate calcification of bone

decreased osteoclast activity

increased osteoclast activity

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

decreased proliferation of the epiphyseal plate cartilage

115

Flat bones consist of compact bone sandwiched between spongy bone.

T
F

F

116

All bones stop growing by the end of adolescence.

T
F

F

117
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What part of the femur articulates (joints) with the patella? Select from letters A-D.

D

118

Which type of cartilage covers and protects the ends of bones at freely moveable joints?

elastic cartilage
hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
both hyaline and elastic cartilage

hyaline cartilage

119

What indicates that a long bone has reached its adult length?

the presence of hyaline cartilage on the ends of the bone

the presence of osteons

the presence of osteoblasts

closure of the epiphyseal plate

closure of the epiphyseal plate

120

Hypercalcemia can be caused by_________.

insufficient vitamin D levels in the body
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone
reduced parafollicular cell activity
All of the listed responses are correct

hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone

121

Osteoclasts ________.

break down bone
form new bone
form skeletal cartilage
calcify bone matrix

break down bone

122

What kind of tissue is the forerunner of long bones in the embryo?

hyaline cartilage
fibrocartilage
elastic connective tissue
dense fibrous connective tissue

hyaline cartilage

123
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The indicated osteocyte is located within layers of bony matrix termed ______.

caniculi
lacuna
lamellae
periosteum

lamellae

124

Which of the following is stored in bones?

iodine
phosphate
vitamin C
glycogen
calcitonin

phosphate

125

Which of the following is a bone projection?

fossa
sinus
groove
trochanter
foramen

trochanter

126

The trabeculae of spongy bone are oriented toward lines of stress.

T
F

T

127

The structural unit of spongy is called ________.

lamellar bone
osteons
osseous lamellae
trabeculae

trabeculae

128

Which of the following statements best describes interstitial growth?

Fibroblasts give rise to chondrocytes that differentiate and form cartilage.

Growth occurs in the lining of the long bones.

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

Unspecialized cells from mesenchyme develop into chondrocytes, which divide and form cartilage.

Chondrocytes in the lacunae divide and secrete matrix, allowing the cartilage to grow from within.

129

Which bone serves as an enclosure for the pituitary gland?

zygomatic bone
mandible
sphenoid bone
ethmoid bone

sphenoid bone

130

Growth of bones is controlled by a symphony of hormones. Which hormone is of greatest importance for bone growth during infancy and childhood?

somatomedins
prolactin
thyroid hormone
growth hormone

growth hormone

131

In adults, hematopoietic tissue is NOT found in ________.

the medullary cavity of long bones
the hip bones and vertebrae
the flat bones of the skull and sternum
the heads of the femur and humerus

the medullary cavity of long bones

132

What is the structural unit of compact bone?

osteon
canaliculus
osteoid
haversian canal

osteon

133

Which of the following is the single most important stimulus for epiphyseal plate activity during infancy and childhood?

parathyroid hormone
calcium
thyroid hormone
growth hormone

growth hormone

134

The epiphyseal plate is ________.

the site of red bone marrow production
where long bone lengthening occurs
where yellow bone marrow is produced
the long axis of a bone

where long bone lengthening occurs

135

Which of the following is CORRECTLY matched?

nondisplaced fracture: the fractured bone ends are misaligned

linear fracture: the break is perpendicular to the bone's long axis

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

incomplete fracture: the bone is broken through

compound fracture: the fractured bone ends penetrate the skin

136

Normal bone formation and growth are dependent on the adequate intake of ________.

vitamin D, phosphate, and chloride
calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D
potassium, phosphate, and vitamin D
sodium, calcium, and vitamin E

calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D

137

Which of the following bones is a part of the appendicular skeleton?

mandible
sternum
humerus
hyoid bone

humerus


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