Muscles and Muscle Tissue

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1

name the three types of muscles

smooth, cardiac, skeleton

2

location of smooth muscle

skin, walls of hallow organs

3

control of smooth muscle

involuntary

4

branching of smooth muscle

no

5

striations of smooth muscles

no

6

intercalated discs in smooth nucleus

no

7

nucleus location in smooth muscle

single and central

8

cell shape in smooth muscle

spindle

9

location of cardiac muscle

heart

10

control of cardiac muscle

involuntary

11

branching of cardiac muscle

yes

12

striations in cardiac muscle

yes

13

intercalated discs in cardiac muscle

yes

14

nucleus location in cardiac muscle

single and usually central

15

cell shape of cardiac muscle

branched cylinder

16

location of skeleton muscle

attached to bones

17

control of skeleton muscle

voluntary

18

branching in skeleton muscle

no

19

striations in skeleton muscle

yes

20

intercalated disc in skeleton muscle

no

21

nucleus location in skeleton muscle

multiple and peripheral

22

shape of skeleton muscle

cylinder

23

what does myo or sacro mean

muscles

24

what are the special characteristics of muscles

excitability, contractibility, extensibility, elasticity

25

what is excitability in a muscle

responsiveness to stimuli

26

what is contractibility

able to shorten after stimuli

27

what is extensibility

ability to extend or stretch

28

what is elasticity

ability to recoil back in length after being stretched

29

what is the function of muscles

produce movement, maintain posture and body position, stabilize joints, generate heat, protects the internal organs

30

muscular tissue consists of

nerves, blood vessels, connect tissue sheath, muscles

31

what connective tissue sheaths are in muscular tissues

epimysium, perimysium, endomysium

32

what is epimysium

dense irregular connective tissue that surround the whole muscle

33

what is perimysium

connective tissue that surround the muscle fascicle or muscle bundles

34

what is endomysium

connective tissue that surrounds each individual muscle fiber

35

the attachment of origin and insertion of muscle can be __________ or ____________.

direct or indirect

36

what happens in direct attachment

the epimysium is fused direction to the periosteum or perichondrium

37

what happens in indirect attachment

epimysium extends beyond the muscle either as a rope like tendon or sheet like aponeurosis, which is attached to the bone or surround muscle

38

what is the cell membrane of the muscle cell called

sarcolemma

39

what is the cytoplasma of the muscle cell called

sarcoplasm

40

what is the diameter of a muscle cell

10-100 micrometer

41

what is the length of a muscle cell

up to 30cm

42

what does the sarcoplasma contain

glycosomes and myoglobin

43

what are glycosomes

granules of stored glycogen that provide glucose during muscle cell activity

44

what are myoglobin

red pigment that store oxygen

45

each muscle cell contains thousands of rod like ________________ that run ___________

myofibril, parallel to each other

46

how much of the muscle fiber is myofibrils

80%

47

what is the contractile unit of the muscle

sarcomere

48

each sarcomere consists of

contractile protein

49

a contractile protein consists of

myosin, actin, regulatory, a band, h zone, m line, I band, z line

50

what is myosin

thick myofilament, has a tail and head

51

what does the head of a myosin have

an ATP binding site and an actin binding site

52

what is actin

thin myofilament, two actin protein strands twisted over each other

53

what does the actin have

a myosin binding site

54

what is tropomyosin

regulatory protein, when muscle is relaxed it does not allow the two binding sites to meet

55

what is troponin

keep the tropmyosin in place when the muscle is relaxed

56

location of a band

extends from one end of myosin to the other end of myosin

57

location of h zone

part of sarcomere within the a band where there is only myosin

58

location of m line

part of sarcomere within the a band in the center of the h zone which consists of the myosin myofilaments to each other

59

location of I band

part of sarcomere where we see only actin myofilaments

60

location of z line

part of sarcomere within the I band where adjacent actin myofilimanet are connected together

61

where does a sarcomere extend to

from one z line to the other z line

62

which lines do not change size

m, z, a

63

sliding filament theory of muscle contraction

calcium comes into muscle cell. reposition of regulatory protein. actin binding sites of myosin bind to the myosin binding site of actin. uses energy from ATP and creates a rowing action preformed by myosin.

64

the rowing action of myosin results in

h zone decrease. shortening of I bond, shortening of sarcomere, shortening of myofilament, shortening of muscle fiber, shortening of muscle bundle, shortening of muscle.


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