AP Psychology Chapter 7 Notes

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1

Learning

A relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

2

Associative Learning

Learning that certain events occur together; the events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

3

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

4

Behaviorism

The view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to mental processes

5

Unconditioned Response

In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth

6

Unconditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally, naturally and automatically, triggers a response

7

Conditioned Response

In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously (but now conditioned) stimulus

8

Conditioned Stimulus

In classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response

9

Acquisition

In classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response; in operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response

10

Higher-order Conditioning

A procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus; also called second-order conditioning

11

Extinction

The diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus; occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced

12

Spontaneous Recovery

The reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response

13

Generalization

The tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses

14

Discrimination

In classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus

15

Respondent Behavior

Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus

16

Operant Conditioning

A type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished if followed by a punisher

17

Operant Behavior

Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

18

Law of Effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely

19

Operant Chamber

In operant conditioning, a chamber (also known as a skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking

20

Shaping

An operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior

21

Reinforcer

In operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

22

Positive Reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food; a positive reinforce is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response

23

Negative Reinforcement

Increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli, such as shock; a negative reinforcer is any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response (not punishment)

24

Primary Reinforcer

An innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need

25

Conditioned Reinforcer

A stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce; also known as a secondary reinforcer

26

Continuous Reinforcement

Reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

27

Partial (Intermittent) Reinforcement

Reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction that does continuous reinforcement

28

Fixed-Ratio Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses

29

Variable-Ratio Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses

30

Fixed-Interval Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed

31

Variable-Interval Schedule

In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals

32

Punishment

An event that decreased the behavior that it follows

33

Cognitive Map

A mental representation of the layout of one's environment

34

Latent Learning

Learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it

35

Intrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake

36

Extrinsic Motivation

A desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment

37

Observational Learning

Learning by observing others

38

Modeling

The process of observing and imitating a specific behavior

39

Mirror Neurons

Formal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy

40

Prosocial Behavior

Positive, constructive, helpful behavior; opposite of antisocial behavior


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