HUN Final Exam

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1

Foods that have been subjected to any process such as addition of additives, milling, or cooking are called _____ foods.

Processed

2

A false story has circulated for several years on the Internet about the chickens used by a popular national fried chicken chain. It claims that the chickens used by the company have been genetically modified to have no heads, beaks, or feet and are kept alive with feeding tubes. This is an example of:

Urban Legend

3

A certain amount of fiber in foods contributes to the health of the digestive tract, but too much fiber leads to nutrient losses. The characteristic of diet planning illustrated by this statement is called:

adequacy

4

One gram of alcohol is equal to _____ calories.

seven

5

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.

True

6

Licensing provides a way to identify people who have met minimum standards of education and experience.

True

7

Which of the following research designs are among the most powerful tools in nutrition research because they show the effects of treatments?

intervention and laboratory experiments

8

Data from a national survey showed that on a given day two-thirds of our population consume inadequate:

fruits

9

Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol levels with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research design?

laboratory study or intervention????

10

A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?

24%

11

A popular star has a half-hour television show describing a new dietary supplement that she claims has made her much healthier. During the show she describes how she has seen improvement in her skin, hair, and eyesight without going to the doctor. This is an example of

infomercial

12

An advertisement for a new performance-enhancing supplement is on the Internet. What can you assume about the advertisement for the supplement?

the information needs to be checked for scientific validity and accuracy

13

You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:

It appears in a scientific journal that is peer reviewed.

14

The credential “R.D.” displayed by a dietitia´s name indicates registration with:

the American Dietetic Association

15

Characteristics of a legitimate and qualified nutrition expert include:

Completion of a medical degree.

16

Effects of physical activity on the body include all of the following except

decreased bone density

17

When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals

we need to understand that all individuals have the same genetic makeup.

18

One of the characteristics of a nutritious diet is that the foods provide enough of each essential nutrient, fiber, and energy. This principle of diet planning is called

adequacy

19

A woman who has begun a new exercise program to keep herself healthy will need to consider that her discretionary calorie allowance:

will increase as the exercise activity increases.

20

The percentages of the Daily Values on food packages are given in terms of a person requiring _____ calories each day.

2,000

21

Foods that provide zero discretionary calories:

are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars

22

The exchange list system highlights the fact that many meats contain more calories from fat than from protein.

True

23

The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.

True

24

Which of the following is the best and safest source of phytochemicals?

whole foods

25

A 51-year-old sedentary woman still has some discretionary calories available for her evening meal. The best choice for her to select for that meal would be to:

have a serving of cooked carrots with her meal in addition to her salad.

26

The bottom portion of the Nutrition Facts panel on a food package:

a and b

27

Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.

True

28

What are the major roles of the villi and microvilli in the small intestine?

the microvilli trap nutrients so the villi cells can absorb them

29

The digestive juices in the digestive tract include

pancreatic juice which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine.

30

You have just consumed a meal very high in fat. As a result, hormonal messages will tell an organ to send ____ in amounts matched to the amount of fat present.

Bile

31

Degenerative diseases are often referred to as chronic diseases.

Bile

32

Resting blood pressure should ideally be _____ or lower.

120 over 80

33

Heart disease in women is characterized by:

development at a later age than in men.

34

A deficiency or toxicity of even a single nutrient can weaken the body’s defenses considerably.

True

35

A man with pre-hypertension is trying to keep his blood pressure from going higher. Which of the following dietary changes might help?

remove the salt shaker from the table

36

A friend complains of blurred vision, cravings for sweets, weakness, and excessive thirst and urination. These symptoms are suggestive of:

Diabetes

37

Which of the following animal-derived foods contains significant amounts of carbohydrates?

Milk

38

You are trying to convince someone that a low-carbohydrate diet is undesirable. Reasons you would give to support your statement include:

...

39

How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?

b and c

40

What would be the best advice to give for physical activity for a person with diabetes?

regular physical activity is beneficial for controlling weight and tissue sensitivity to insulin in type 2 diabetes

41

Which of the following foods contains about 15 grams of carbohydrate?

A and b

42

Which of the following is most closely related to diabetes?

sugar content in the diet

43

Which of the following is the most-used monosaccharide inside the body?

Glucose

44

Carbohydrates are essential to provide energy for the body because:

the glucose that is produced from them is the preferred fuel source to most of the body

45

Complex carbohydrates:

are long chains of sugar units arranged to form starch or fiber.

46

In an effort to lower LDL you would tell someone to:

a and c

47

Which of the following is not a function of fat in the human body?

carries the water-soluble nutrients

48

The major storage form of fats in our body is:

triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.

49

triglycerides, which are made up of fatty acids and glycerol.

dismantling stored fat in fat cells and releasing components into blood.

50

Fatty acids in foods influence the composition of fats in the body.

True

51

Which of the following would be the best dietary advice for someone who needs to lower her blood cholesterol levels?

reduce the intake of saturated and trans fat in your diet to lower LDL levels in the blood

52

Which of the following food groups in the USDA Food Guide always contains fat?

a and c

53

Some ground turkey and chicken products in which the skin is ground in are much higher in fats than lean beef.

TRue

54

All of the following provide about 5 grams of pure fat except:

2 tablespoons sour cream

55

The abundance of types of foods today has made it:

more difficult to plan a nutritious diet.

56

Most foods that are high in calcium are poor sources of iron. This statement illustrates the importance of the characteristic of a nutritious diet known as:

balance

57

The compound that gives hot peppers their burning taste is called a:

phytochemical

58

The term _“____” has no legal definition but is often used on food labels to imply wholesomeness.

natural

59

What type of research studies populations and is often used to search for correlations between dietary habits and disease incidence?

epidemiological study

60

When considering the effect of genetics and nutrition on chronic disease development in individuals:

our genetic inheritance determines the influence nutrition will have on disease prevention.

61

The credential “R.D.” displayed by a dietitian's name indicates registration with:

the American Dietetic Association.

62

The major role in the body that all vitamins and minerals have is:

to act as regulators in body processes.

63

As more research is showing the possible benefits of phytochemicals for health, the best way to approach consuming them in your diet is to:

include a variety of fruits and vegetables containing phytochemicals in your diet.

64

An important role of the exchange system of categorizing foods is to:

provide groupings of similar foods by their carbohydrate, fat, protein, and calorie content.

65

The primary difference between recommendations for nutrient intakes and values set for energy intake is that the value for energy intake is not generous.

True

66

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are appropriately used for all of the following except:

estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems.

67

One of the best sources of lycopene is:

tomatoes

68

Any food providing 10% or more of the Daily Value for a nutrient is considered to be a _____ source of the nutrient.

good

69

The term "brown bread" on a label is a guarantee that the bread has been made with whole-grain flour.

False

70

Products of the incomplete breakdown of fat that occurs when carbohydrates are not available are called:

ketone bodies

71

Fruits differ from concentrated sweets because:

more nutrient dense
packaged with fiber

72

Which of the following is not one of the complex carbohydrates?

fructose

73

In the past three decades, carbohydrate intake in this country has:

increased along with calorie intake.

74

Which of the following would you recommend for a person with lactose intolerance?

aged cheese

75

When considering the health concerns of diabetes it is important to remember that:

if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body.

76

When controlling the fat intake in your diet it is best to use the following suggestion:

...

77

The most heart-healthy margarines are those:

which list liquid oil as the first ingredient.

78

Research on the benefits of fatty acids and their components has shown that:

seafood-consuming populations have a lower rate of death from heart disease.

79

The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid classifies legumes as:

part of the fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains group.

80

Which of the following statements about trans fatty acids is true?

They arise when polyunsaturated oils are hydrogenated.

81

To protect yourself from consuming too much _____, you would limit your consumption of swordfish, king mackerel, and shark.

mercury

82

When you are selecting the type of fish to eat, which of the following should you consider?

the species of fish chosen for grilled, baked, or broiled dishes contain higher levels of EPA and DHA

83

All of the following statements concerning cholesterol are true except:

it is an essential nutrient.

84

All of the following are risk factors for CVD except:

diastolic blood pressure of 80.

85

Which of the following would be considered a risk factor for CVD?

LDL 160 mg/dL or higher

86

Obesity is a risk for certain cancers such as colon, breast, endometrial, pancreas, and kidney cancer.

True

87

Health care providers are now able to tailor a person’s treatment to prevent or minimize disease based on their identified genetic profile.

...

88

Which of the following strategies should be used by someone experiencing heartburn?

a and b

89

Body fluids supply the tissues continuously with energy, oxygen and nutrients, including water.

True

90

Most people have aversions to ____ tastes.

Bitter

91

The primary organ of digestion and absorption is the

small intestine

92

Sound nutrition authorities acknowledge that well-chosen vegetarian diets are consistent with good health and can meet nutrient needs.

True

93

Which of the following is not associated with an excess of protein?

...

94

A child with marasmus would exhibit all of the following symptoms except:

edema

95

The calorie-deficiency disease resulting from chronic starvation is known most specifically as:

marasmus

96

If needed, protein can help to maintain a steady blood glucose level and also serve the glucose need of the brain.

true

97

Of the following foods, which likely contains the most easily digestible protein?

Tuna

98

The body normally makes tyrosine from the essential amino acid:

phenylalanine

99

Which statement is true of a vegan diet?

very young children and the elderly may not consume enough plant sources of protein to build and maintain bone and muscle tissue

100

The best way for a vegetarian to ensure adequate absorption of iron in the diet is to:

...

101

To ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium, vegans need to:

a and c

102

You have mixed a container of juice from its concentrate form and placed the open pitcher in the refrigerator to drink from over several days. Which vitamin in the juice is most at risk from the exposure to the air in the refrigerator?

...

103

Fortified plant sources of vitamin D available in the United States include:

...

104

Tobacco use introduces oxidants into the body that can do potential harm to the body tissues. What antioxidant plays an important role in protecting sensitive blood constituents from being damaged, and so is needed in much higher amounts in people exposed to tobacco products and smoke?

vitamin C

105

Which of the following would be most likely to develop pellagra?

a person who does not consume meats and eats corn as the dietary staple

106

Symptoms of vitamin A deficiency include:

...

107

If a person does need to take a vitamin supplement, it is best for them to select a product that:

has a balance of the vitamins you really need with few added ingredients.

108

You advise your grandmother against using mineral oil as a laxative because:

...

109

Research suggests that deficiency of vitamin D may lead to:

...

110

Which of the following ethnic groups has the highest bone density?

Africans

111

Which of the following foods has the lowest percentage of water?

margarine

112

The chief ion used to maintain the volume of fluid outside cells is:

sodium

113

Adults in the United States consume an average of _____ milligrams per day of sodium.

3400

114

Over half of the body’s magnesium is stored in the:

bones

115

Which of the following impairs iron absorption?

...

116

If a person has a deficient intake of calcium in the diet, what will be the result?

no change in levels of calcium in the blood because calcium will be pulled from the bones

117

What are the best beverages to drink?

...

118

How much water and fluid beverages (in cups) should a man consume each day, under moderate environmental conditions and given a normal diet?

13

119

Which of the following is not characteristic of water?

...

120

A person who diets without exercising:

b and c

121

One pound of body fat is equal to _____ calories.

3500

122

Society plays a role in eating disorders because they are known only in developed nations and they become more prevalent as wealth increases and food becomes plentiful.

True

123

The hormone produced by adipose tissue in response to body fat production that helps to control obesity is:

leptin

124

Waist circumference indicates visceral fatness, and above a certain girth, disease risks rise, even when BMI values are normal.

True

125

Central to the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa is:

a distorted body image

126

Which of the following statements about basal metabolism is true?

...

127

Donna weighs 160 pounds. How many grams of fat should Donna consume in order to meet the DRI recommendation, if she consumes 1600 calories a day?

...

128

Which of the following foods has the greatest energy density?

vanilla ice cream that weighs 39 grams and is 155 calories

129

You have chosen to treat yourself to one weekly mocha latte coffee, which has 215 calories. This could add how much to your body weight in a year’s time?

3 pounds

130

Muscle growth is stimulated by:

physically demanding activity.

131

Which of the following is among the most dangerous and illegal ergogenic practices?

anabolic steroid hormones

132

How can endurance athletes best postpone fatigue during their activity?

eat glucose periodically during the event

133

Recommendations have been established for moderate physical activity because:

...

134

You have been following a fitness program for several weeks and your resting pulse has gone from 70 to 58. What can you state about your progress?

...

135

An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour.

1.5 quarts

136

A female athlete weighs 120 pounds before a race and 115 pounds after the race. How much fluid should she consume?

10 cups

137

Which of the following would not be appropriate as part of a pregame meal?

...

138

When designing a fitness routine that is intended to help muscles gain strength and size, what must you consider?

...

139

Calculate how much carbohydrate an athlete who is in training for a marathon should eat within two hours after his daily workout in order to enhance his body’s storage of glycogen if he weighs 175 pounds.

...

140

Your family always has rice available at every meal, just as it has been for every generation. This is an example of ____ of food selection.

cultural tradition

141

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.

True

142

The main purpose of the national research projects, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII), is to

determine what the nutrient and dietary intakes of the population in our country are.

143

8) Phytochemicals found in foods are important because

they decrease the risk of developing certain diseases when they are eaten.

144

Which of the following terms was coined in an attempt to identify foods that might lend protection against chronic diseases by way of the nutrients or nonnutrients they contain?

functional foods

145

In nutrition, the word essential means

a necessary nutrient that can be obtained only from the diet.

146

A certain amount of fiber in foods contributes to the health of the digestive tract, but too much fiber leads to nutrient losses. The characteristic of diet planning illustrated by this statement is called:

moderation

147

Data from a national survey showed that on a given day two-thirds of our population consume inadequate:

Fruits

148

Scientists have developed a new type of margarine containing plant ingredients they think will lower blood cholesterol levels in people who use the margarine. They want to test this by having some people use the new margarine for a while and then compare their cholesterol levels with those of a group of people who use regular margarine. This is an example of what type of research design?

intervention

149

A food provides 8 grams of fat and 300 total calories. What is the percentage of calories as fat in this product?

24%

150

3. As more research is showing the possible benefits of phytochemicals for health, the best way to approach consuming them in your diet is to:

include a variety of fruits and vegetables containing phytochemicals in your diet

151

A woman who has begun a new exercise program to keep herself healthy will need to consider that her discretionary calorie allowance:

will increase as the exercise activity increases.

152

Which of the following establishes population-wide average requirements used by nutrition policymakers?

Estimated Average Requirement

153

1. The nutrient standards in use today include all of the following except:

Daily Minimum Requirements (DMR)

154

. The Dietary Reference Intakes were devised for which of the following purposes?
A. to set nutrient goals for individuals
B. to suggest upper limits of intakes, above which toxicity is likely
C. to set average nutrient requirements for use in research
D. all of the above

all of the above

155

3. According to the USDA Food Guide, which of the following may be counted among either the meats or the vegetables? chicken

black beans

156

4. The USDA Food Guide recommends a small amount of daily oil from which of these sources?
A. olives
B. nuts
C. vegetable oil
D. all of the above

All of the above

157

10. To be labeled "low fat," a food must contain 3 grams of fat or less per serving.

True

158

9. By law, food labels must state as a percentage of the Daily Values the amounts of vitamin C, vitamin A, niacin, and thiamin present in food.

False; Vit A, C, calcium, and iron

159

As food moves through the digestive tract it spends the most time in the

Colon; large intestines

160

Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.

True

161

Enriched and fortified foods are not necessarily more nutritious than whole basic foods.

True

162

Only about 30 percent of all medical schools in the United States require students to take even one nutrition course.
Answer

True

163

Harry has a monotonous diet and eats the same foods every day. You try to convince him to eat a variety of foods because:

...

164

Licensing provides a way to identify people who have met minimum standards of education and experience.

True

165

Food scientists measure food energy in:

Calories

166

Three ounces of beef stew offers about the same amount of iron as three ounces of water-packed tuna, but the beef contains over 300 calories while the tuna contains about 100 calories. This is an example of:

...

167

The nutrients fall into _____ classes.

sex

168

Nutrition-related health objectives for the nation have been published by the:

Department of Health and Human Services.

169

Amounts of which types of lipids must be listed on food labels?

b and c

170

Which of the following statements is not true about the DRI?

They are minimum requirements, not recommendations.

171

Exchange systems help primarily with:

...

172

On average, one should try to get 100% of the DRI for every nutrient to ensure an adequate intake over time.

True

173

Which of the following is characteristic of Daily Values?

They are ideal for allowing comparisons among foods.

174

The best way for a person to get all the essential nutrients and keep energy intake low is to:

a and b

175

If a nutrient does not have a Tolerable Upper Intake Level, this means that:

...

176

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans are intended for healthy adults and children ages _____ and older.

two

177

When planning a healthful diet, you should remember that:

the more physically active you are, the greater your discretionary calorie allowance.

178

Timing of meals is important because the digestive tract is unable to digest food at certain times.

False

179

A person can become intoxicated almost immediately when drinking, especially if

the stomach is empty.

180

Which of the following cells normally replace themselves once every few years?

muscle

181

A friend of yours is considering drinking one glass of wine a day because she has heard that it may reduce her risk of heart attacks. What information would you provide to her?

Selected Answer:
in middle-aged populations, taking 1-2 drinks a day may benefit the heart

182

Although the recommendation is to drink in moderation if consuming alcohol, the following problem may still need to be considered

Selected Answer:
moderation is difficult to define because of differences in tolerance among people.

183

A woman frequently has a dinner meal of grilled steak, baked potato with margarine, green peas, and a white dinner roll. Which food should be eaten less often to reduce her risk of breast cancer?

...

184

Thirty minutes of brisk walking on at least 5 days a week can improve the odds against heart disease.

True

185

In men, aging becomes a significant risk factor for heart disease at age:

45

186

Which of the following is not one of the risk factors for CVD?

Selected Answer:
high blood HDL

187

Heart disease in women is characterized by:

Selected Answer:
development at a later age than in men.

188

How would you respond to someone who states that white bread is just as nutritious as whole-wheat bread?

Selected Answer:
b and c

189

It can be said that the energy we obtain from foods comes from the sun. This is because:

Selected Answer:
light energy from the sun is used in photosynthesis to create chemical energy in the plant.

190

Most unrefined plant foods contain a mix of fiber types.

True

191

All of the following are health benefits of insoluble fiber except:

Selected Answer:
it lowers risk of diabetes.

192

The term "brown bread" on a label is a guarantee that the bread has been made with whole-grain flour.

False

193

A person states they are having hypoglycemic symptoms when waking up. Your response to them is:

Selected Answer:
You may want to check with your doctor because it could be a result of a medical complication.

194

When considering the health concerns of diabetes it is important to remember that:

Selected Answer:
if poorly controlled it can damage major organs and tissues in the body.

195

Fruits differ from concentrated sweets because:

Selected Answer:
a and b

196

When the blood glucose level rises after a meal, the first organ to respond is the:

pancreas

197

Which of the following is the preferred fuel for most body functions?

carbohydrate

198

Which of the following food groups in the USDA Food Guide always contains fat?

a and c

199

What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils?

Selected Answer:
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid

200

Which of the following fats is the most saturated?

Selected Answer:
coconut oil

201

The lipoproteins LDL and HDL are important in heart disease risk because of the following properties and actions:

Selected Answer:
HDL play an important role in scavenging cholesterol from the tissues for disposal.

202

Which one of the following statements about fatty foods is true?

Selected Answer:
fat contributes to satiety, contributing to the feeling of fullness

203

The main dietary factor associated with elevated blood cholesterol is:

Selected Answer:
high saturated and trans fat intake.

204

About 95% of the lipids in foods and in the human body are:

triglycerides

205

Approximately what percent calories from fat would be provided by a bowl of soup containing 200 calories and 99 calories from fat?

Selected Answer:
50%

206

Recent recommendations suggest that we consume monounsaturated fats in the place of saturated fat. Which of the following items would achieve this goal?

Selected Answer:
a and c

207

Excess calories from carbohydrates, protein, and fat all raise cancer rates.

True

208

A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and elevated LDL blood levels is complaining that she suddenly is feeling very tired, has shortness of breath and nausea, and has neck and shoulder pain. What would you advise her to do?

go with you to the emergency room because she may be having a heart attack

209

For CVD prevention, trans fat in the diet should account for less than _____ percent of calories.

...

210

A man with pre-hypertension is trying to keep his blood pressure from going higher. Which of the following dietary changes might help?

Selected Answer:
remove the salt shaker from the table

211

Effects of physical activity on the body include all of the following except:

Selected Answer:
decreased bone density.

212

Most foods that are high in calcium are poor sources of iron. This statement illustrates the importance of the characteristic of a nutritious diet known as:

balance

213

A study conducted in several countries where a high intake of fish and a low intake of animal fat were correlated with a low rate of breast cancer death is an example of a(n):

Selected Answer:
epidemiological study.

214

You can tell a claim about nutrition is suspect if it bears the following characteristics:

Selected Answer:
it is being made by an advertiser who is paid to make claims.

215

Malnutrition includes deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of nutrients, any of which can be detrimental over time.

True

216

Only about 30 percent of all medical schools in the United States require students to take even one nutrition course.

True

217

Nutrition-related health objectives for the nation have been published by the:

Selected Answer:
Department of Health and Human Services.

218

How many calories are in a food that contains 20 grams of carbohydrate, 8 grams protein, and 5 grams of fat?

157

219

Which of the following people would not be covered by the DRI, based on assumptions made by the DRI committee?

Selected Answer:
Robert, a 20 year old with cystic fibrosis

220

Foods that provide zero discretionary calories:

Selected Answer:
are naturally low in fat and have no added fats or sugars.

221

George is a 35-year-old athlete using nutrient supplements to give him a competitive advantage. Which of the following nutrient intake recommendations would you suggest that George become familiar with?

Selected Answer:
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels

222

Your sister has taken the Healthy Eating Index to evaluate her diet and has received a score of 59. What would the interpretation of her score be?

Selected Answer:
She needs to still improve her intake of foods to meet the Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommendations

223

The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are appropriately used for all of the following except:

Selected Answer:
estimating the nutrient needs of persons with medical problems.

224

When determining the amounts of food to eat from each group in the USDA Food Guide each day, you need to remember that:

Selected Answer:
the recommended amounts will vary, depending on age, physical activity, and gender.

225

The digestive juices in the digestive tract include

Selected Answer:
pancreatic juice which neutralizes stomach acids reaching the small intestine.

226

Digestion of foods includes the mechanical actions of

Selected Answer:
peristalsis waves to move the foods down through the digestive tract.

227

Some vitamins are stored in the body without limit, even if they reach toxic levels.

When the colon is not functioning properly, complications that may arise include

228

According to the USDA Food Guide, most adults should limit meat intake to 5 oz./day.

...

229

The most heart-healthy margarines are those:

Selected Answer:
which list liquid oil as the first ingredient.

230

Which of the following fats is the most saturated?

Selected Answer:
coconut oil

231

Key heart-healthy foods in the Mediterranean diet include all of the following except:

margarine

232

All of the following problems are associated with low-fat diets except:

...

233

All of the following statements concerning cholesterol are true except:

Selected Answer:
it is an essential nutrient.

234

What is the most accurate statement to make about the process of hydrogenation of liquid vegetable oils?

Selected Answer:
oils that have been hydrogenated are more resistant to oxidation that will spoil them and make them rancid

235

Which monosaccharide is responsible for the sweet taste of fruit?

fructose

236

Research has shown the following relationship between carbohydrate in the diet and body weight:

...

237

Which of the following would you recommend for a person with lactose intolerance?

...

238

The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose level and elicits an insulin response as compared with pure glucose can be measured and ranked on a scale called the:

Selected Answer:
glycemic index.

239

Hormones play an important role in regulating blood glucose levels with:

Selected Answer:
epinephrine breaking down liver glycogen to provide glucose in times of danger.

240

Digestion of most starch begins in the:

mouth

241

Which of the following terms would you look for on a bread label to choose the most nutritious product?

...

242

Current dietary guidelines for the United States recommend:

...

243

A boy 10 years old is going through a growth spurt. Because he needs to build new muscle tissue, what should his nitrogen status be?

Selected Answer:
positive nitrogen balance

244

The heavy use of soy products in place of meat can inhibit _____ absorption.

iron

245

Which of the following provides amino acids that are best absorbed by the body?

animal proteins

246

All of the following cause denaturation of proteins except:

light

247

Which of the following is not a characteristic of children with kwashiorkor?

Selected Answer:
They look like skin and bones.

248

Sickle-cell disease is an example of an inherited mistake in the amino acid sequence.

True

249

The best way for a vegetarian to ensure adequate absorption of iron in the diet is to:

Selected Answer:
include vitamin C-rich foods because they enhance absorption of iron.

250

When amino acids are degraded for energy, their amine groups are stripped off and used elsewhere or incorporated by the liver into:

urea

251

An athlete consumes large amounts of meat in an effort to build extra muscle tissue. This practice does not work because:

a and c

252

To ensure adequate intakes of vitamin B12, vitamin D, and calcium, vegans need to:

...

253

Which of the following B vitamins is especially important for women of childbearing age to prevent neural tube defects?

folate

254

When comparing absorption and storage of fat-soluble versus water-soluble vitamins in the body:

Selected Answer:
fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and fatty tissues until the body needs them.

255

Vitamin E serves as:

Selected Answer:
an antioxidant.

256

Vitamin toxicity is more of a concern with which type of vitamins?

Selected Answer:
fat-soluble vitamins because they are stored more readily in body tissues

257

To derive the maximum amount of vitamin C from vegetables you would:

b and c

258

In the U.S. scurvy is seldom seen today except in:

Selected Answer:
people addicted to alcohol.

259

A girl has stopped growing in height prematurely because her bones are not going through the remodeling process necessary for growth. This is most likely from a deficiency of which vitamin?

...

260

An individual has developed heart disease and high blood lipid values and does not want to go on lipid-lowering prescription medications because of their side effects. Which vitamin has been used by physicians in treatment plans as a more natural treatment for heart disease?

...

261

All enriched grain products in the U.S. now have folic acid added to them because:

...

262

Population studies suggest that people whose diets lack foods rich in beta-carotene have a higher incidence of:

...

263

How much water and fluid beverages (in cups) should a man consume each day, under moderate environmental conditions and given a normal diet?
Answer

13

264

Which of the following is the principal positively charged ion inside body cells?

potassium

265

After about 25 years of age, regardless of calcium intake, bones begin to lose density.

False

266

The bioavailability of calcium in calcium-fortified orange juice is comparable to that of milk.

True

267

Calcium absorption declines in the elderly because:

b and c

268

Which of the following best describes the fluoride content of bottled water?

...

269

Which of the following statements about selenium levels in the body is accurate?

Selected Answer:
selenium works as an antioxidant to protect body chemicals from oxidative damage

270

Adults in the United States consume an average of _____ milligrams per day of sodium.

3400

271

The best source of phosphorus is:

Selected Answer:
animal protein.

272

The principal food source of chloride is:

salt

273

A woman who is trying to get pregnant has a BMI of 17 and a 10 percent body fat value. What factors should she consider concerning her body composition?

Selected Answer:
because of her low body fat composition she may have trouble with infertility

274

A body mass index of 25.0 to 29.9 in an adult indicates:

Selected Answer:
overweight.

275

A person who diets without exercising:

b and c

276

Which of the following types of foods sustain satiety longer than other foods?

a and b

277

The most important time of the day to eat when you are trying to lose weight is:

Selected Answer:
breakfast, because it may help reduce food intake all day long.

278

Bulimia is more prevalent than anorexia nervosa and is more common in women than men.

True

279

All of the following factors are associated with a higher basal metabolic rate except:

starvation

280

Successful weight maintainers:

Selected Answer:
a and c

281

Paul is a 19-year-old athlete who is 6’ tall and weighs 178 pounds; Rick is a 40-year-old salesman who weighs 165 pounds and is 5’ 7” tall. Who would have the higher basal metabolic rate?

Paul

282

About _____ percent of a meal’s energy value is used up in stepped-up metabolism in the five or so hours following each meal.

5-10

283

A 70-year-old woman wants to begin a weight training program. What advice would you give her?

Selected Answer:
it would be a good way to improve her bone density

284

Most athletes probably need somewhat more protein than do sedentary people.

True

285

An endurance athlete can lose _____ of fluid an hour.

1.5 quarts

286

Moderate use of caffeine by athletes:

Selected Answer:
may assist performance.

287

Carbonated beverages are not a good choice for meeting an athlete’s fluid needs because they:

Selected Answer:
make a person feel full quickly and may limit fluid intake.

288

The advantage for athletes of using sport drinks for fluid replacement is that:

Selected Answer:
they have a pleasant taste which encourages consumption.

289

What is the intensity level of a physical activity that causes some increase in breathing, is a perceived exertion of 5 or 6, and allows you to have a conversation while doing the activity?

Selected Answer:
moderate

290

A high school football player is eating enough protein foods in his diet to provide him with 2.5 grams per kg of his body weight. What type of benefit will he get from his high protein intake?

Selected Answer:
this exceeds the recommendation for his sport so he should consider trading carbohydrate for some of the protein

291

The first symptom of dehydration (besides thirst) is:

fatigue

292

Which of the following are most prone to iron deficiency?

Selected Answer:
a and b

293

The energy yielding nutrients include

protein
fat

294

chemical digestion of all nutrients mainly occurs in which organ

small intestine

295

Which of the following types of cells do not reproduce, and if damaged by injury or disease are lost forever

brain cells

296

the blood picks up oxygen and releases carbon dioxide in the

lungs

297

When the pancreas detects a high concentration of the blood's sugar, glucose, it releases:

insulin

298

the nervous system's role in hunger regulation is coordinated by the

brain

299

the purpose of the villi and microvilli in the intestinal tract is to

trap nutrient particles and absorb them into the cells

300

the liver converts excess energy-containing nutrients into

glycogen

301

when fructose and glucose are bonded together they form

table sugar

302

the disaccharides include

sucrose, maltose, and lactose


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