Exam 4 NATSCI202

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1

The primary means of regulating body water gain is adjusting
a. The volume of water intake
b. The rate of cellular respiration
c. The formation of metabolic water
d. the volume of metabolic water
e. the metabolic uses of water

a

2

When dilute urine is being formed, the osmolarity of the fluid in the tubular lumen increases as it flows down the
descending limb of the loop of Henle, decreases as it flows up the ascending limb, and continues to decrease as it flows through the rest of the nephron and collecting duct.
A. This statement is TRUE
B. This statement is FALSE

a

3

Volume of blood that is cleared of a
substance per unit of time
a. renal calculi
b. renal plasma clearance
c. BUN test
d. plasma creatinine

b

4

Produced from the catabolism of creatine
phosphate in skeletal muscle
a. renal calculi
b. renal plasma clearance
c. BUN test
d. plasma creatinine

d

5

Which of the following is FALSE?

a. Angiotensin II and ANP help regulate GFR
b. Mechanisms that regulate GFR work by
adjusting blood flow into and out of the
glomerulus and by altering the glomerular capillary surface area available for filtration
c. GFR increases when blood flow into
glomerular capillaries decreases
d. Normally, GFR increases very little when systemic blood pressure rises
e. GFR is directly related to the pressure
that determine net filtration pressure

c

6

Measure of blood nitrogen resulting from
the catabolism and deamination of amino
acids
a. renal calculi
b. renal plasma clearance
c. BUN test
d. plasma creatinine

c

7

The renal corpuscle consists of
a. the proximal and distal convoluted
tubules
b. The glomerulus, and the glomerular (Bowman's) capsule
c. The descending and ascending limbs of
the loop of Henle
d. all the renal pyramids
e. the glomerulus and the vasa recta

b

8

In the myogenic mechanism of renal
autoregulation
a. renin causes contraction of macula densa cells to increase GFR
b. smooth muscle in afferent arterioles
triggers vasoconstriction to decrease GFR
c. norepinephrine causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles to decrease GFR
d. atrial natriuretic peptide causes
relaxation of mesangial cells to increase
GFR
e. angiotensin II causes dilation of the
proximal and distal convoluted tubules.

b

9

Which of the following substances is
normally almost completely reabsorbed by
the tubules of the nephron?
a. Creatinine
b. glucose
c. phosphate
d. sodium
e. urea

b

10

Facultative reabsorption of water occurs
mainly in the
a. glomerulus
b. proximal convoluted tubules
c. descending limb of the loop of Henle
d. ascending limb of the loop of Henle
e. collecting ducts

e

11

If the level of aldosterone in the blood increases, then
a. more potassium is excreted in the urine
b. more sodium is excreted in the urine
c. blood pressure will drop
d. glomerular filtration rate will drop
e. First B, then C, then D

a

12

The stimulus for release of ANP is
a. renin
b. ADH
c. aldosterone
d. stretching of the atrial wall
e. osmoreceptors

d

13

In studies of fluid balance, the term water intoxication refers to
a. Poisoning of the body's water due to buildup of toxic substances during renal failure
b. Increased blood hydrostatic pressure
created by high total blood volume.
c. Movement of water from interstitial fluid into intracellular fluid due to osmotic
gradients created by ion loss
d. Any situation in which edema develops
e. Failure of neurohypophysis to secrete sufficient ADH.

c

14

Extracellular fluids are
a­. high in both Na+ & K+
b. low in both Na+ & K+
c. high in Na+ & low in K+
d. low in Na+ & high in K +

c

15

When bicarbonate ion diffuses out of red blood cells into plasma, it is usually exchanged with which anion?
a. Sodium
b. potassium
c. phosphate
d. hydrogen
e. chloride

e

16

Hyperventilation results in
a. metabolic acidosis
b. respiratory acidosis
c. metabolic alkalosis
d. respiratory alkalosis

d

17

The lowest blood concentration of nitrogenous waste occurs in the
a. Hepatic vein
b. inferior vena cava
c. renal artery
d. renal vein

d

18

The glomerular capillaries differ from other capillary networks in the body because they
a. Have a larger area of anastomosis
b. Are derived from and drain into arterioles
c. are not made of endothelium
d. are sites of filtrate formation

b

19

Damage to the renal medulla would interfere first
with the functioning of the
a. Glomerular capsules
b. DCT
c. collecting ducts
d. PCT

c

20

Which is reabsorbed by the proximal convoluted tubule?
a. Na+
b. K+
c. amino acids
d. all of the above

d

21

Glucose is not normally found in the urine because it
a. Does not pass through the walls of the glomerulus
b. Is kept in the blood by colloid osmotic pressure
c. Is reabsorbed by the tubule cells
d. Is removed by the body cells before the blood reaches the kidney

c

22

Filtration at the glomerulus is inversely relatedto
a. Water reabsorption
b. Capsular hydrostatic pressure
c. arterial blood pressure
d. acidity of the urine

b

23

Tubular reabsorption
a. Is a time­limited active transport process
b. Of chloride is always linked to the passive transport ofNa+
c. Is the movement of substances from the blood into the nephron
d. Of sodium occurs only in the proximal tubule

a

24

Conditions such as diabetes mellitus and
starvation are closely linked to
a. Ketonuria
b. pyuria
c. albuminuria
d. hematuria

a

25

Which ofthe following is/are true about ADH?
a. It promotes obligatory water reabsoprtion ­
b. It is secreted in response to an increase in extracellular fluid osmolality;
c. It causes insertion of aquaporins in the PCT
d. It promotes Na+ reabsorption

b

26

Body water is greatest in
a. Infants
b. young adults
c. elderly adults
d. they are all the same

a

27

Potassium, magnesium and phosphate are the predominant electrolyes in
a. Plasma
b. interstitial fluid
c. intracellular fluid
d. all of the above

c

28

Sodium balance is regulated primarily by control of amount(s)
a. Ingested
b. excreted in urine
c. lost in sweat
d. lost in feces

b

29

Water balance is regulated by control of amount(s)
a. Excreted in vomit
b. excreted in urine
c. lost in sweat
d. lost in feces

b

30

Which of the following factors will enhance ADH release?

a. Increase in ECF volume
b. decrease in ECF volume
c. decrease in ECF osmolality
d. none of the above

b

31

The pH of blood varies directly with a. HC03
b. PC02
c. H+
d. none of the above

a

32

In an individual with metabolic acidosis, a clue that the respiratory system is compensating is provided by

a. High blood bicarbonate levels
b.Low blood bicarbonate levels
c. rapid, deep breathing
d. slow, shallow breathing

c

33

What does increasing activity level do to systemic pressure?
a. Increases
b. decreases
c. has no effect

a

34

What does increasing activity level do to glomerular hydrostatic pressure?
a. Increases
b. decreases
c. has no effect

a

35

What does increasing activity level do to net filtration rate?
a. Increases
b. decreases
c. has no effect

a

36

Concerning acid­base imbalances:
a. Acidosis can cause depression of the CNS through depression of synaptic transmission
b. Renal compensation can resolve renal alkalosis or acidosis
c. A major physiological effect of alkalosis is lack of excitability in the CNS and peripheral nerves
d. Resolution of respiratory acidosis and alkalosis occurs through respiratory compensation
e. In adjusting blood pH, renal compensation occurs quickly whereas respiratory compensation takes days.

a

37

Which of the following are FALSE?
a. An increase in the CO2 concentration in body
fluids increases H+ concentration and thus lowers
pH
b. Breath holding results in a decline in blood pH
c. The respiratory buffer mechanism can eliminate a single volatile acid
d. The only way to eliminate fixed acids is to excrete H+ in the urine
e. When the diet contains a large amount of
protein, normal metabolism produces more bases than acids

e

38

Which of the following statements is FALSE?
a. Buffers prevent rapid, drastic changes in pH of a body fluid
b.Buffers work quickly
c. Strong acids lower pH more than weak acid because strong acids contribute fewer H+
d. Proteins can buffer both acids and bases
e. Hemoglobin is an important buffer

c

39

Which of the following are false statement concerning ions in the body?
a. They control osmosis of water between fluid compartments.
b. They help maintain acid­base balance
c. They carry electrical current
d. They serve as co factors for enzyme activity
e. They serve as neurotransmitters under special circumstances

e

40

Which of the following do NOT regulate fluid loss?
a. Antidiuretic hormone
b. aldosterone
c. atrial natriuretic hormone
d. thyroxine

d

41

Which of the following are NOT ways that dehydration stimulates thirst?
a. It increases the production of saliva
b. It increases osmolarity of body fluids
c. It decreases osmolarity of body fluids
d. It decreases blood .fluid volume
e. None of the above

c

42

Which of the following statements are NOT correct?

a. Gomerular filtration rate (GFR) is directly related to the pressures that determine net filtration pressure
b. Angiotensin II and atrial natriuretic peptide help regulate GFR
c. Mechanisms that regulate GFR work by adjusting
blood flow into and out of the glomerulus and by
altering the glomerular capillary surface area available for filtration
d. GFR increases when blood flow into glomerular capillaries decreases
e. Normally, GFR increases very little when systemic blood pressure rises

d

43

Which of the following does NOT affect Na+, CI­ and water reabsoprtion and K+ secretion by the renal tubules?
a. Angiotensin II
b. aldosterone
c. ADH
d. ANP
e. thyroid hormone

e

44

Which of the following are features of the renal corpuscle that do NOT enhance its filtering capacity?

a. Large glomerular capillary surface area
b. Thin permeable filtration membrane
c. High capsular hydrostatic pressure
d. High glomerular capillary pressure
e. Mesangial cells regulating the filtering surface area

c

45

The micturition reflex
a. Is initiated by stretch receptors in the bladder
b. Relies on parasympathetic impulses from the micturition center in S2 and S3
c. Results in contraction for the detrusor muscle
d. Inhibits motor neurons in the external urethral sphincter
e. All of the above

e

46

Vascular smooth muscle cells relax and dilate when not stretched, decreasing blood flow
a. This statement is TRUE
b. This statement is FALSE

b

47

In the thin descending loop of Henle, membranes are permeable to water but not to sodium chloride
a. This statement is TRUE
b. This statement is FALSE '

a

48

Composition of the filtrate is NOT changed as it passes through the differing osmotic environments of the renal cortex and medulla.
a. This statement is TRUE
b. This statement is FALSE

b

49

Final concentration of urine occurs in the
a. PCT
b. DCT
c. loop of Henle
d. medullary collecting duct

d

50

The concentration of the substances in the glomerular filtrate is similar to its concentration in plasma
a. This statement is TRUE
b. This statement is FALSE

a

51

Which of the following buffer systems is an important regulator of blood pH?
a. Protein buffers
b. phosphate buffers
c. carbonic acidlbicarbonate buffers

a

52

Which of the following buffer systems is an important buffer in ICF and in urine
a. Protein buffers
b. phosphate buffers
c. carbonic acidlbicarbonate buffers

b

53

Which of the following is the correct sequence of tubular fluid flow?

a. PCT, descending loop of Henle, ascending limb of loop of Henle, collecting duct, PCT, papillary duct
b. PCT, descending loop of Henle, ascending limb of loop of Henle, DCT­, collecting duct, papillary duct
c. Papillary duct, DCT, PCT collecting duct, descending loop of Henle, ascending limb of loop of Henle
d. Collecting duct, PCT, descending loop of Henle, ascending limb of loop of Henle, papillary duct, DCT
e. DCT, descending loop of Henle, ascending limb
of loop of Henle, PCT, papillary duct, collecting
duct

b

54

This hormone is produced by the JG cells in the JGA
a. Renin
b. angiotensinogen
c. angiotensin I
d. angiotensin II
e. aldosterone

a

55

When rennin level declines, less of this hormone is formed
a. Renin
b. angiotensinogen
c. angiotensin I
d. angiotensin II
e. aldosterone

c

56

A lower production of the hormone in the above question also leads to less of this hormone being released into the bloodstream.
a. Renin
b. angiotensinogen
c. angiotensin I
d. angiotensin II
e. aldosterone

e

57

Match the following with their descriptions:
Modified smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole

juxtaglomerular cells

58

Match the following with their descriptions:
Can secrete H+ against a concentration gradient

intercalated cells

59

Match the following with their descriptions:
site of obligatory water reabsorption

proximal convoluted tubule

60

Match the following with their descriptions:
cells of the final portion of the asc. limb of the loop of Henle that make contact with the afferent arteriole

macula densa

61

Match the following with their descriptions:
the visceral layer of the glomerular capsule consisting of modified simple squamous epithelial cells

podocytes

62

Match the following with their descriptions:
combine glomerulus and glomerular capsule; where plasma is filtered

renal corpuscle

63

Match the following with their descriptions:
drains into a collecting duct

distal convoluted tubule

64

Match the following with their descriptions:
the functional unit of the kidney

nephron

65

Match the following with their descriptions:
a capillary network lying in Bowman's capsule and functioning in filtration

glomerulus

66

Match the following with their descriptions:
cells in the last portion of the DCTs and in the collecting ducts; regulated by ADH and aldosterone

principle cells

67

Match the following with their descriptions:
membrane proteins that function as water channels

aquaporins

68

Match the following with their descriptions:
stimulates principal cells to secrete more K + into tubular fluid

aldosterone

69

Match the following with their descriptions:
reduces glomerular filtration rate; increases blood volume and pressure

angiotensin II

70

Match the following with their descriptions:
inhibits Na+ and H20 reabsorption by incr. the H20 permeability of principals cells in the DCTs and collecting ducts

atrial natriuretic peptide

71

Match the following with their descriptions:
regulates facultative water reabs. by incr. the water permeability of principal cells in the DCTs and collecting ducts.

ADH

72

Match the following with their descriptions:
The most abundant cation in ICF; plays a key role in establishing the resting membrane potential

potassium

73

Match the following with their descriptions:
the most abundant mineral in the body; plays important roles in blood clotting, neurotransmitter release, maintenance of muscle tone, and excitability
of nervous and muscle tissue

calcium

74

Match the following with their descriptions:
most prevalent extracellular cation; essential in fluid and electrolyte balance

sodium

75

Match the following with their descriptions:
2nd most common intracellular cation; is a cofactor for enzymes in carbohydrate, protein, and Na+/K + metabolism

magnesium

76

Match the following with their descriptions:
most prevalent extracellular anion; can help balance the level of anions in different fluid compartments.

chloride

77

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by excessive vomiting of gastric contents, gastric suctioning, use of certain diuretics, severe dehydration, or excessive intake of alkaline drugs.

metabolic alkalosis

78

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by oxygen deficiency at high altitude, stroke, or severe anxiety

respiratory alkalosis

79

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by emphysema, pulmonary edema, injury to the respiratory center of the medulla oblongata, airway destruction, or disorders of the muscles involved in breathing

respiratory acidosis

80

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by actual loss of bicarbonate ions, ketosis, or failure of kidneys to excrete H+

metabolic acidosis

81

Match the following with their descriptions:
can occur during renal failure or destruction of body cells, which releases phosphates into the blood

hyperphosphatemia

82

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by excessive sodium in diet or with dehydration

hypernatremia

83

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by decreased K+ intake or kidney disease; results in muscle fatigue, incr. urine output, changes in ECG

hypokalemia

84

Match the following with their descriptions:
can occur from hypoparathyroidism

hypocalcemia

85

Match the following with their descriptions:
can be caused by excessive water intake, excessive vomiting, or aldosterone deficiency.

hyponatremia

86

Match the following with their descriptions:
the blood pressure in glomerular capillaries

Glomerular blood hydrostatic press

87

Match the following with their descriptions:
the hydrostatic pressure exerted against the filtration membrane by fluid already in the capsular space & renal tubule

Capsular hydrostatic press

88

Match the following with their descriptions:
is due to the presence of proteins such as albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen in blood plasma

­Blood colloid osmotic press

89

Match the following with their descriptions:
opposes filtration

Capsular hydrostatic press & Blood colloid osmotic press

90

Match the following with their descriptions:
promotes filtration

Glomerular blood hydrostatic press

91

Match the following with their descriptions:
an inferior displacement or dropping of the kidney (floating kidney)

nephroptosis

92

Match the following with their descriptions:
a lack of voluntary control over micturition

urinary incontinence

93

Match the following with their descriptions:
The crystals of salts present in urine occasionally precipitrate and solidify into insoluble stones

renal calculi

94

Match the following with their descriptions:
a progressive and usually irreversible decline in glomerular filtration rate.

chronic renal failure

95

Match the following with their descriptions:
the amount of filtrate formed in all the renal corpuscles of both kidneys each minute

GFR

96

Match the following with their descriptions:
water and other small dissolved molecules and ions are pulled out of the glomerular capillary plasma into, the glomerular capsules by this process.

Glomerular filtration

97

Match the following with their descriptions:
movement of water and solutes from the kidney tubules out of tubular fluid back into the blood in the
surrounding peritubular capillaries.

tubular reabsorption

98

Match the following with their descriptions:
functions because the descending loop of Henle is relatively impermeable to solutes and freely permeable to water and the ascending limb is permeable
to solutes, but not to water.

countercurrent multiplier

99

Match the following with their descriptions:
The movement of substances (such as drugs, urea, excess ions) from peritubular capillary blood into filtrate.

Tubular secretion

100

Match the following with their descriptions:
As a result of this process, the amount of a particular chemical excreted in, the urine may exceed
the amount filtered from the plasma in the glomerulus.

Tubular secretion

101

Extra credit
Trace the route of blood through the kidney, beginning with the renal artery and ending with the renal vein

?


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