As the length of a cell increases, its _____ increases faster than the _____
volume; surface area
What determines the rate at which food and oxygen in a cell are used up and waste products produced
the cells volume
How can you obtain a cells ratio of surface area to volume?
Divide surface area by volume
T/F As a cell grows in size, its volume increases much more rapidly than its surface area
What happens to a cells ratio of surface area to volume as the cells volume increases more rapidly that its surface area?
The ratio decreases
The process by which a cell divides into 2 new daughter cells
How does cell division solve the problem of increasing size?
It divides forming two daughter cells
The division of the cytoplasm
What forms midway between the divided nucleus during cytokinesis in plant cells?
the cell plate
In eukaryotic cells what are the 2 main stages of cell division?
mitosis and cytoknesis
Each pair of chromatids is attached at an area called the _____
The period of growth in between cell divisions is called
The series of events that cells go through as the grow and divide
The division of the cell nucleus during the M phase of the cell cycle is called
Interphase is divided into what three phases?
Cells increase in size (cell growth)
chromosomes are replicated, DNA synthesis takes place (DNA replication)
organelles and molecules required for cell division are produced (preparation for mitosis)
What are the 4 phases of mitosis?
prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase
What are the two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope at the beginning of prophase?
A fanlike microtubule structure that helps separate the chromosomes
The chromosomes move until they form 2 groups near the poles of the spindle
The chromosomes become visible. The centrioles take up positions on opposite sides of the nucleus.
A nuclear envelope re-forms around each cluster of chromosomes. The nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter nucleus.
The chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
the arms of the centromere
region joining the 2 sister chromatids that make up an x-shaped chromosome
aid in cell division
proteins associated with cell division that are thought to initiate certain processes of mitosis
What describes cancer
uncontrolled cell growth cells stop growing
uncontrolled cell growth
Disorder in which some of the bodys own cells lose the ability to control growth
What happens to the cells at the edges of an injury when a cut in the skin of a break in a bone occurs?
they begin to under go cell division
What happens to the rapidly dividing cells when the healing process nears completion?
they slow down and then stop altogether
regulate the timing of the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
Allow cell cycle to proceed only when certain processes have happened inside the cell
Direct cells to speed up or slow down the cell cycle
Include growth factors
Prevent excessive cell growth and keep the tissues of the body from disrupting one another
True about eternal regulators
Cancer cells form masses of cells called _____
The chromosomes in the nucleus of the cell make identical copies of themselves
The nuclear membrane disappears and the chromosomes become distinct
The chromosomes more toward and line up along the center of the cell called the equator
The microtubules pull one set of chromosomes to one side of the cell and an identical set to the opposite side of the cell
New nuclear membranes form around each of the 2 sets of chromosomes and the cell divides into 2 daughter cells