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*Exercise 6A: Classification of Tissues

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created 7 years ago by jncanf
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pg. 85 - pg. 90 Add Pictures at the end

updated 6 years ago by jncanf

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1

Define Tissue

Group of cells that are similar in structure and function

2

lines body cavities and covers the body's external surface

epithelium

3

pumps blood, flushes urine out of body, and allows one to swing a bat.

muscular

4

transmits electrochemical impulses

nerve

5

anchors, packages, and supports body organs

connective

6

cells may absorb, secrete and filter, synthesizes hormones

Epithelium

7

most involved in regulating and controlling body functions

nervous

8

major function is to contract

muscle

9

synthesizes hormones

nervous

10

the most durable tissue type

connective

11

abundant nonliving extracellular matrix

connective

12

most widespread tissue in the body

connective

13

forms nerves and the brain

nervous

14

Describe five general characteristics of epithelial tissue.

Polarity, Cellularity, Supported by Connective tissue, Avascularity and Regeneration

15

On what basis are epithelial tissues classified?

arrangement or relative number of layers and cell shape

16

List five major functions of epithelium in the body, and give examples of each.

1. protection; epithelium covering body surface protects against bacterial invasion and chemical damage.

2. absorption; epithelium specialized to absorb substances lines the stomach and small intestines.

3. filtration; in kidney tubules, epithelium filters (and absorbs and secretes)

4. excretion; Sweat is excreted from the body by epithelial cells in the sweat glands

5. secretion; In glands, epithelial tissue is specialized to secrete specific chemical substances such as enzymes, hormones and lubricating fluids

17

How does the function of stratified epithelia differ from the function of simple epithelia?

Simple means that there is only one layer of these cells, not as much protection as stratified which indicates several layers of cells. Stratified epithelia are named according to the cells at the apical surface of the epithelial membrane, not those resting on a basement membrane like the simple epithelia.

18

Where is ciliated epithelium found? What role does it play?

Can be found in the lining of the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract. There role is to keep mucus and any other debris from entering the lower reaches of the lung tissue by moving in a upward direction.

19

Transitional epithelium is actually stratified squamous epithelium with special characteristics. How does it differ structurally from other stratified squamous epithelia? How does the structural difference support its function?

its structure is different in that it is rounded, or "plump" cells. Its structural difference supports in function in that it has the ability to slide over one another to allow the organ to be stretched.

20

How do the endocrine and exocrine glands differ in structure and function?

Endocrine glands are ductless, and there function is to release all hormones into the extracellular fluid where they enter blood stream and lymphatic vessels. But Exocrine glands have ducts, and they secrete through the ducts to an epithelial surface.

21

Lining of the esophagus

Stratified Squamous

22

Lining of the stomach

Simple Columnar

23

Alveolar Sac of Lungs

Simple squamous

24

Tubules of the kidney

Simple Cuboidal

25

Epidermis of the skin

Stratified squamous

26

Lining of bladder; peculiar cells that have the ability to slide over each other

Transitional

27

Forms the thin serous membranes; a single layer of flattened cells.

Simple squamous

28

What are three general characteristics of connective tissues?

1. With a few exceptions, connective tissues have a rich supply of blood vessels.

2. Connective tissues are composed of many types of cells.

3. There is a great deal of noncellular, nonliving material (matrix) between the cells of connective tissues.

29

What functions are performed by connective tissue?

protection, support, and bind together tissues of the body.

30

How are the functions of connective tissue reflected in its structure?

there is a wide variety in the structures of connective tissue. This is relected in the wide variety of functions they perfrom. Also, the large amount of nonliving matrix seen provides the strength needed to protect the body and carry out the normal functions of the body.

31

attaches bones to bones and muscles to bones

dense connective tissue

32

acts as a storage depot for fat

adipose

33

the dermis of the skin

dense

34

makes up the intervertebral discs

fibrocartilage

35

forms the hip bone

osseous

36

composes basement membranes; a soft packaging tissue with a jellylike matrix

areolar

37

forms the larynx the costal cartilages of the ribs and the embryonic skeleton

hyaline cartilage

38

provides a flexible framework for the external ear

elastic cartilage

39

firm structurally amorphous matrix heavily invaded with fibers; appears glassy and smooth

hyaline cartilage

40

matrix hard owing to calcium salts; provides levers for muscles to act on

osseous

41

insulates against heat loss

adipose connective tissue

42

walls of large arteries

elastic

43

Why do adipose cells remind people of a ring with a single jewel?

they contain a large fat-filled vacuole occupying most of the cell volume. The nucleus is pushed to the periphery, giving the cell a "signet ring" appearance.

44

What two physiological characteristics are highly developed in neurons, nerve cells?

irritablility and conductivity

45

In what ways are neurons similar to other cells?

they constain a nucleus and the usual organelles.

46

How are neurons and other cells different?

their cytoplasm is drawn out into long processes.

47

Describe how the unique structure of a neuron relates to its function in the body

neurons conduct impulses over relatively long distances in the body. This is facilitated by their long cytoplasmic extensions.

48

Muscle tissue: voluntarily controlled

skeletal

49

Muscle tissue: involuntarily controlled

cardiac, smooth

50

Muscle tissue: striated

skeletal, cardiac

51

Muscle tissue: has a single nucleus in each cell

cardiac, smooth

52

tissue: has several nuclei per cell

skeletal

53

tissue: found attached to bone

skeletal

54

tissue: allows you to direct your eyeballs

skeletal

55

Muscle tissue: found in the walls of the stomach, uterus and arteries

smooth

56

tissue: contains spindle-shaped cells

smooth

57

tissue: contains branching cylindrical cells

skeletal

58

tissue: contains long, nonbranching cylindrical cells

skeletal

59

Muscle tissue: has intercalated discs

cardiac

60

Muscle tissue: concerned with locomotion of the body as a whole

skeletal

61

Muscle tissue: changes the internal volume of an organ as it contacts

cardiac

62

Muscle tissue: tissue of the heart

cardiac


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