Chapter 4 Epithelial Tissue

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1

True or False
Epithelial Tissue is also called an Epithelium, or plural Epithelia.

True

2

Epithelial tissue is a sheet of cells that _________ a body surface, or __________ a body cavity.

Covers...
Lines

3

The 2 forms of epithelial tissue that occur in the human body are...?

Covering and Lining Epithelium
and
Glandular Epithelium

4

The Covering and lining epithelium does NOT do which of the following:
A. Forms the outer layer of the skin
B. Dips into, and lines, the open cavities of the urogenital, digestive, and respiratory systems.
C. Covers the walls and organs of the closed ventral body cavity.
D. Fashions the glands of the body.

D

5

Which form fashions the glands of the body?

Glandular

6

___________ form boundaries between different environments.

Epithelia

7

True or False
Nearly all substances received by the body must pass through an epithelium.

True

8

What are the 6 primary functions epithelium accomplishes?

1. Protection
2. Absorption
3. Filtration
4. Excretion
5. Secretion
6. Sensory Reception

9

What are the 5 distinguishing characteristics of epithelium?

1. Polarity
2. Specialized Contacts
3. Supported by connective tissues
4. Avascular but intervated
5. Regeneration

10

-Polarity-
True or False
All epithelia have an apical surface and a basal surface.

True

11

-Polarity-
Match the term with the descriptions.

1. Apical Surface

2. Basal Surface

A. Upper
B. Lower
C. Attached
D. Free Surface
E. Exposed to body exterior or body cavity

1. A, D, E

2. B, C

12

-Polarity-
True or False
Epithelia exhibit apical-basal polarity

True

13

Finger-like extensions of the plasma membrane are called __________. It increases the cells surface area.

-Polarity-

Microvilli

14

Some Microvilli are so dense that the cells have a "fuzzy" appearance called a ___________.

Brush Border

15

________ are tiny hairlike projections that propel substances along their free surface (apical surface.)

-Polarity-

Cilia

16

The ____________ is a thin, supporting, adhesive sheet, adjacent to the basal surface.

-Polarity-

Basal lamina

17

What determines which molecules are allowed to enter the epithelium?

-Polarity-

The basal lamina

18

What is the scaffolding that epithelial cells can use to migrate to repair a wound?

-Polarity-

The basal lamina

19

-Specialized Contacts-
Lateral contacts, including _______________ and __________, bind adjacent cells together at many points.

Tight Junctions...
Desmosomes

20

-Specialized Contacts-
The Tight Junctions help keep proteins in the __________ region from diffusing into the __________ region. This maintains the polarity.

Apical...
Basal

21

-Supported by connective tissues-
Just under the basal lamina is the _______________.

reticular lamina

22

Basal Lamina + Reticular Lamina = _________________

Basement Membrane

23

What reinforces the epithelial sheet, helps resist stretching and tearing, and defines the epithelial boundary.

Basement Membrane

24

True or False
Cancerous cells cannot penetrate the basement membrane, which protects important tissues underneath.

False
Cancerous Cells do not respect the basement membrane and they do penetrate the tissues underneath.

25

What does Avascular mean?

Contains no blood vessels

26

If something is supplied by nerve fibers, it is _________.

innervated.

27

How do epithelial cells get nourished?

By substances diffusing from blood vessels into the connective tissue underneath.

28

True or False
Epithelium has a low regeneration capacity

False
It has a high regeneration capacity.

29

Why is it important that Epithelium can regenerate rapidly?

They are exposed to the harsh surface and vulnerable to injury.

30

Each epithelia has 2 names. The first name indicates the number of _____________, the second describes the _________ of the cell.

cell layers
shape

31

Based on the number of cell layers, there are __________ and ____________ epithelia.

Simple and Stratified

32

Simple has ________ cell layer.
Stratified has ______________ cell layers.

one
2 or more

33

Based on the shape, there are 3, which are ____________, ____________, and ____________ cells.

Squamous
Cuboidal
Columnar

34

Match.
1. Flattened
2. Boxlike
3. Tall and column shaped

A. Columnar
B. Squamous
C. Cuboidal

1. B
2. C
3. A

35

The shape of the ___________ conforms to the shape of the cell

nucleus.

36

True or False
Simple epithelia are good at absorption, secretion, and filtration. But are no good at protection

True

37

2 simple squamous epithelia in the body have special names that reflect their location, they are...

1. Endothelium
2. Mesothelium

38

The inner covering is the ____________.
The middle covering is the ____________.

Endothelium
Mesothelium

39

What is the Epithelium that gives the impression of being multi-layered.

Pseudostratified columnar epithelium

40

What epithelium forms the external part of the skin, and extends into body openings continuous with the skin.

Stratified Squamous

41

The epidermis is ____________, meaning its surface cells contains __________, a tough protective protein.

Keratinized... Keratin

42

__________ epithelium has the ability to stretch and change shape. Like in the bladder, it stretches to hold more urine.

Transitional

43

__________ consist of one or more cells that make and secrete a particular product.

Glands

44

The water-based fluid produced from the glands are called ____________.

Secretions

45

True or False
The term "secretion" can refer to both the gland's product, and the process of making and releasing the product.

True

46

Glands are classified by these 2 traits:

1. where they release their product.
2. cell number

47

endocrine = secreting __________
exocrine = secreting __________

inside (internally)
Outside (externally)

48

unicellular = __________ cell.
Multicellular = ____________ cells.

one
many (2 or more)

49

Endocrine glands eventually lose their ducts, so they are called ____________ glands

ductless

50

Endocrine glands produce ___________, or messenger chemicals.

hormones

51

Exocrine glands secrete onto the body's __________, or into body ____________.

Surface
Cavities

52

mucous cells and goblet cells are _____________, or single celled.

unicellular

53

All unicellular exocrine glands produce __________.

Mucin

54

True or False
Mucin is a lipid that does not dissolve in water when secreted.

False
Mucin is a glycoprotein that does dissolve in water.

55

A __________ cell looks like a glass with a stem, because mucin accumulates and distends the top of the cell.

Goblet

56

Multicellular exocrine glands have 2 basic parts, a ______ and a ______.

duct...
secretory unit

57

What surrounds the secretory unit and supplies it with blood vessels and nerve fibers?

Supportive connective tissue

58

A __________ capsule extends into the multicellular exocrine gland and divides it into ________.

fibrous...
lobes

59

How do you classify multicellular exocrine glands?
A. ______________
B. ______________

A. Structure
B. Types of secretions

60

Based on their duct structure, mulitcellular exocrine glands can either be SIMPLE with an __________ duct, or COMPLEX with a ________ duct.

unbranched
branched

61

based on their secretory units, you would classify the multicellular exocrine glands 3 ways...
1.
2.
3.

Tubular
alveolar
tubuloalveolar

62

if the secretory cells form tubes they are _______?

tubular

63

if small flask-like cells are formed, the are ________?

alveolar

64

if both are formed, they are called _____________?

tubuloalveolar

65

__________ is another term for alveolar, it means berry-like.

acinar

66

Multicellular exocrine glands secrete in different ways, so they function as __________, __________, or __________ glands.

merocrine
holocrine
apocrine

67

__________ secrete as its being produced.
__________ holds on to the secretion until it explodes.

merocrine
holocrine

68

multicellular exocrine glands are classified according to duct type (__________ or __________) and by the structure of their secretory units (__________, __________, or __________)

simple... compound
tubular... alveolar... tubuloalveolar)


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