A & P

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ch 6, 7 and 8
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1

Shape

Terms such as "long, flat, short, and irregular" are used to classify bones

2

Long Bone

Elongated shape

3

MIneral Storage

Metabolic function in the skeletal system

4

Fossae

Depressions on bones

5

Trochanter

projection on a bone that is a site of muscle or ligament attachment

6

Osteoclasp

not a type of bone

7

Osteon

group of concentric rings of bone matrix compromising the functional unit of long bones

8

canaliculi

Ajacent osteocytes communicate via gap junctions found within these.

9

...

Principle component of bone that contributes to hardness

10

Flat bones

created via intramembraneous ossification

11

Osteoblasts

responsible for initiating ossification of bone

12

Bone not grown in length

long bone growth whose cartilage stopped dividing in epiplyscal disc (plate) stops working

13

Decrease

In a patient whose parathyroid glands have been removed, you would expect that persons blood calcium level to____________.

14

Calcium homeostatic importance

numerous metabolic activities, strengthen bone, muscle contraction, blood coagulation

15

Femur

Which bone is capable of carrying the greatest weight

16

Fibula

Not a weight bearing bone

17

22

Total bones in skull

18

8

cranial bones in skull
**frontal bone, 2 parietal bones, 2 temporal bones, occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid

19

14

facial bones in skull

20

frontal

skull bone connected to rest of cranium posteriorly

21

Bones contains 4 major areas

squamous, tympan, mastoid, temporal

22

zygomatic bone

scientific name for cheekbone

23

hyoid

bone that doesn't articulate with any other bone in the skeleton

24

26

number of individual bones in adult vertebral column

25

Primary functions of vertebral column

-protection of spinal column/cord & transmission of weight

26

Intervertebral foramina function

exit of spinal cords

27

transverseforama

makes cervical vertebrae uniquely identifiable

28

occipital condyles

moves while nodding yes while the dens stabilizes movement while shaking head no

29

major functions of thoracic cage

1. protects lungs
2. helps expand thoracic cavity during breathing

30

sternum

bone not part of appendicular skeleton

31

flexibility, stability

the arrangement of bones and muscles of the pectoral girdle is such that there is a high degree of __________, and a low level of __________.

32

surgical neck

the most frequently fractured portion of the humerus

33

medial epicondyle

funny bone

34

radius, ulna

the _______rotates about the_______ when you pronate your forearm

35

phalanx

the bone that would bear a ring

36

3

a hip bone is made of how many separate bones?

37

humerus

arm bone

38

clavicle, scapula

bones of the shoulder girdle

39

radius, ulna

forearm bones

40

acromion

scapular region that connects to clavicle

41

scapula

shoulder girdle bone that does not attache to the axial skeleton

42

clavicle

shoulder girdle bone that articulates (joins) with and transmits forces to the bony thorax

43

glenoid cavity

depression in the scapula that articulates (joins) with the humerus

44

coracoid process

process above the glenoid cavity that permits muscle attachment

45

clavicle

the collarbone

46

trochlea

distal condyle of the humorous that articulates with the ulna

47

ulna

medical bone of the forearm

48

capitulum

rounded knob on the humerus, adjoins the radius

49

coronoid fossa

anterior depression, superior to the trohclea, which receives part of the ulna when forearm is flexed

50

ulna

forearm bone involved in formation of the elbow joint

51

carpals

wrist bones

52

phalanges

finger bones

53

metacarpals

heads of these bones form the knuckles

54

scapula, sternum

bones that articulate (join) with the clavicle

55

14

total number of phalanges in the hand

56

8

total number of carpals of the wrist

57

carpals in proximal row

pisiform, triquetral, lunate, scaphoid

58

carpals in distal row

hamate, capitate, trapezoid, trapezium

59

pubis, ilium, and ischium

fuse to form coxal bone

60

ischium

"sit down" bone of the coxal bone

61

pubic symphysis

point where the coxal bones join anteriorly (front)

62

iliac crest

superiormost (toward head) margin of the coxal bone

63

acetabulum

deep socket in the coxal bone that receives the head of the thigh bone

64

sacroiliac joint

joint between axial skeleton and pelvic girdle

65

femur

longest, strongest bone in the body

66

fibula

thin lateral leg bone

67

tibia

heavy medial leg bone

68

femur, tibia

bones forming knee joint

69

tibial tuberosity

point where patellar ligament attaches

70

patella

knee cap

71

tibia

shinbone

72

medial malleolus

medial ankle projection

73

lateral malleolus

lateral ankle projection

74

calcaneous

largest tarsal bone

75

tarsals

ankle bones

76

metatarsals

bones forming the instep of the foot

77

abturator foramen

opening in hipbone formed by the pubic and ischial rami

78

gluteal tuberosity, greater and lesser trochanters

sites of muscle attachment on the proximal femur

79

talus

tarsal bone that "sits" on the calcaneous

80

tibia

weight bearing bone of the leg

81

talus

tarsal bone that articulates(joins) with the tibia

82

cartilaginous

typically allows a slight degree of movement

83

cartilaginous

includes joints between the vertebral bodies and the pubic symphysis

84

fibrous

essentially immovable joints

85

fibrous

sutures are the most remembered examples

86

cartilaginous

characterized by cartilage connecting the bony portions

87

synovial

all characterized by a fibrous articular capsule lined with a synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity

88

synovial

all are freely movable or diarthrotic

89

fibrous

bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue

90

synovial

include the hip, knee, and elbow joints

91

ligament

dense fibrous connective tissue; attaches bones together--reinforces joints

92

tendon

dense fibrous connective tissue attaching muscle to bone; reinforces the joint capsules it spans a joint

93

articular cartilage

hyaline cartilage, reduces friction where bones articulate

94

synovial membrane

loose connective tissue, produces synovial fluid which decreases friction within the joint capsule

95

bursa

fluid- filled synovial sac which cushions the tendon where it crosses the bone

96

pivot

joint between the axis and atlas

97

ball and socket

hip joint

98

plane

intervertebral joints (between articular processes)

99

condylar

joint between forearm bones and wrist

100

hinge

elbow

101

hinge

interphalangeal joints

102

plane

intercarpal joints

103

hinge

joint between talus and tibia/fibula

104

condylar

joint between skull and vertebral column

105

hinge

joint between jaw and skull

106

condylar

joints between proximal phalanges and metacarpal bones

107

ball and socket

a multiaxial joint

108

condylar, saddle

biaxial joints

109

hinge, pivot

uniaxial joints

110

one plane

uniaxial joints

111

two planes

biaxial joints

112

three or more

multiaxial joints

113

characteristics of joints

all consist of bony regions held together by fibrous or cartilaginous connective tissue, or by a joint capsule

114

cervical curvature

7 vertebrae ( C1-C7)

115

Thoracic curvature

12 vertebrae (T1- T12)
-spinous process (T1)
-transverse processes (T4)
-intervertebral discs (in between 9 & 10)
-intervertebral foramen (hole in between

116

Lumbar curvature

5 vertebrae (L1 - L5)

117

Sacral curvature

5 fused vertebrae sacrum

118

coccyx

4 fused vertebrae

119

206

bones in adult skeleton

120

axial skeleton

long axis of body: skull, vertebral column, rib cage

121

Appendicular skeleton

extremities, bones of upper and lower limbs, girdles attaching limbs to axial skeleton

122

rickets

a disease caused by vitamin D deficiency in children

123

long bones

**used as levers**
-longer than they are wide
-limb, wrist, ankle bones

124

short bones

**in areas that require a wide range of motion**
-cube shaped bones (in wrist & ankle)
-sesamoid bones (within tendons --ex--patella)
-vary in size and number in different individuals

125

Flat bones

**used for protection to vital organs**
-thin, flat, slightly curved
-sternum, scapulae, ribs, most skull bones

126

Irregular bones

**left over that don't fit into other categories**
-complicated shapes
-vertebrae, coxal bones, facial bones

127

7 functions of bones

-support
-protection
-movement
-mineral and growth factor storage
-blood cell formation (bone marrow)
-triglyceride (fat) storage
-hormone production

128

Function of bones : Support

for body and soft organs

129

Function of bones : Protection

-for brain, spinal cord, and vital organs

130

Function of bones : Movement

-levers for muscle action

131

Function of bones : Mineral and growth factor storage

-calcium & phosphorus, and growth facto reservoir

132

Function of bones : Blood cell formation

hematopoiesis in red marrow cavities of certain bones

133

Function of bones : Triglyceride (fat) storage

in bone cavities ---> energy source

134

Function of bones : hormone production

osteocalcin
-regulates bone formation
-protects against obesity, glucose intolerance, diabetes mellitus

135

Bone

-are organs
-contain all different types of tissue
-grow with reproduction of cartilage cells

136

bone texture

compact --> dense outer layer; smooth and solid
spongy-->honeycomb of flat pieces (trabeculae) --red bone marrow lives in spongy

137

hyaline cartilage

covers joint/articular surfaces

138

periosteum

-covers external surfaces except joint surfaces
-outer fibrous layer of dense irregular connective tissue
-white, double layered membrane
-anchoring points for tendons and ligaments

139

endosteum

-aerolar connective tissue based membrane
-covers trabecular of spongy bone
-lining of internal cavity of bone

140

hematopoietic tissue

-red marrow
--produces ALL blood cells red and white
-not a lot in adults
found in trabecular cavities of spongy bone

141

Bone markings

-sites of muscle, ligament, and tendon attachment on external surfaces
-joint surfaces
-conduits for blood vessels and nerves
-projections
-depressions
-openings

142

projections

-stress created by muscle pull or joint modifications
-occurs bc muscles or tendons are attached to the bone

143

tuberosity

large rounded projection, may be roughened

144

crest

narrow ridge of bone, usually prominent

145

trochanter

very large, blunt, irregular shaped process (only on femur)

146

line

narrow ridge of bone, less prominent tun a crest

147

tubercule

small rounded projection or process

148

epicondyle

raised area on or above condyle

149

spine

sharp, slender, often pointed projection

150

process

any bony prominence

151

head

bony expansion carried on a narrow neck

152

facet

smooth, nearly flat articular surface

153

condyle

rounded articular (joined) projection

154

ramus

armlike bar of bone

155

groove

furrow

156

fissure

narrow, slitlike opening

157

foramen

round or oval opening through a bone

158

notch

indentation at the edge of a structure

159

meatus

canal-like passageway

160

sinus

cavity within a bone, filled with air and line with a mucous membrane

161

fossa

shallow, basin like depression in a bone, often serving as a articular surface

162

Cells of bone tissue

-(baby) osteogenic cells
-(teen) osteoblasts
-(adult) osteocytes
-bone lining cells --found under endosteum periosteum
-osteoclasts --cells that destroy bone

163

osteogenic

-baby
-miotically active stem cells in periosteum and endosteum

164

osteoblasts

-teenager
-bone forming cells
-makes bone matrix that is primarily collagen
-secrete unmineralized bone matrix or osteoid

165

osteocytes

-adult
-mature bone cells in lacunae
-monitor and maintain bone matrix
-act as stress or strain sensors
-all bones formed out of cartilage

166

bone lining cells

-flat cells on bone surfaces believed to help maintain matrix
-help maintain matrix and collagen
-external bone surface called periosteal cells
-lining internal surfaces called endosteall cells

167

osteoclasts

-come from red marrow (hematopoietic stem cells)
-secrete a weak acidic solution similar to vinegar
-dissolves calcium out of bone

168

compact bone

lamellar bone

169

osteon/ haversian system

-runs longitudinally
-structural unit of compact bone
-elongated cylinder

170

lamellae

-hollow tubes of bone matrix
-in osteon in compact bone
-collagen fibers in adjacent rings run in different directions
-withstands stress--resists twisting

171

central (haversian) canal

-runs through core of osteon
-contains blood vessels and nerve fibers
-can bleed to death from broken bone

172

lacunae

-small cavities that contain osteocytes

173

canaliculi

hairlike canals that connect lacunae to each other and central canal

174

osteoid

-1/3 of organic bone matrix secreted by osteoblasts
-90% main component is collagen
-contributes to structure; gives bone strength and flexibility

175

hydroxyapatites

-mineral salts
-65% of bone by mass
-mainly inorganic component calcium phosphate crystals
-responsible for hardness and resistance due to compression

176

frontal

forehead bone

177

zygomatic

cheekbone

178

mandible

lower jaw

179

nasal

bridge of nose

180

palatine

posterior bones of the hard plate

181

parietal

much of lateral and superior cranium

182

occipital

most posterior part of cranium

183

sphenoid

single, irregular, bat-shaped bone forming part of the cranial base

184

lacrimal

tiny bones bearing tear ducts

185

maxilla

anterior part of hard plate

186

ethmoid

superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections

187

temporal

site of mastoid process

188

sphenoid

site of sella turcica

189

ethmoid

site of cribriform plate

190

mandible

site of mental foramen

191

temporal

site of styloid processes

192

4 bones containing paranasal sinuses

ethmoid, frontal, maxilla, sphenoid

193

occipital

condyles here articulate (join) with the atlas

194

occipital

foramen magnum contained here

195

hyoid

small U-shaped bone in neck, where many tongue muscles attach

196

vomer, nasal

two bones that form the nasal spetum

197

ethmoid

bears an upward protrusion, the "cock's thumb", or crista galli

198

mandible, maxilla

contain sockets bearing teeth

199

sacrum

composite bone, articulates(joins) with hip bone laterally

200

lumbar vertebrae

massive vertebrae; weight sustaining

201

coccyx

"tail bone" ; vestigial fused vertebrae

202

atlas

supports head; allows a rocking motion in conjunction with the occipital condyles

203

axis

dens here provide a pivot for rotation of the first cervical vertebrae

204

ribs and sternum

major bony components of the thorax

205

true rib

-attached to cartilage
-directly articulates (joins) with sternum

206

fibrocartilage

tissue that makes up the intervertebral discs

207

orbit

eye socket

208

squamous suture

connects temporal and parietal on each side of skull

209

14 facial bones

-doesn't touch brain
-2 lacrimal
-2 nasal
-2 zygoma
-2 maxilla
-2 palatine
-2 inferior nasal conchae
-vomer
-mandible

210

8 cranial bones

-all touch brain
-2 parietal
-2 temporal
-frontal
-occipital
-sphenoid
-ethmoid


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