All EXCEPT which of the following are characteristics of the genetic
A. It must be replicated accurately.
B. It must be capable of change.
C. It contains all the information needed for growth, development, and reproduction of the organism.
D. It is composed of protein.
The Hershey and Chase experiments involved the preparation of two
different types of radioactively labeled phage. Which of the following
best explains why two preparations were required?
A. It was necessary that each of the two phage components, DNA and protein, be identifiable upon recovery at the end of the experiment.
B. Each scientist had his own method for labeling phage, so each conducted the same experiment using a different isotope.
C. The bacteriophage used in the experiments was a T2 phage.
D. Establishing the identity of the genetic material required observation of two phage generations.
A. It was necessary that each of the two phage components, DNA and
protein, be identifiable upon recovery at the end of the experiment.
(Because it was concluded that the component associated with bacteria at the end of the experiment must be the genetic material, it was critical that the component be identifiable as either DNA or protein.)
Which of the following statements best represents the central
conclusion of the Hershey-Chase experiments?
A. When radioactive sulfur is supplied in a growth medium, it is primarily DNA that incorporates radioactive label.
B. Phage T2 is capable of replicating within a bacterial host.
C. DNA is the identity of the hereditary material in phage T2.
D. Some viruses can infect bacteria.
Which of the following outcomes would be most likely if the
Hershey-Chase experiments were repeated without the step involving the
A. Neither preparation of infected bacteria would exhibit radioactivity.
B. Both preparations of infected bacteria would contain both P32 and S35.
C. Both preparations of infected bacteria would exhibit radioactivity.
D. The phage would fail to infect bacteria.
What observation did Griffith make in his experiments with
A. The heat-killed, virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae was lethal to the mouse.
B. That DNA is the genetic material.
C. The mouse survived injection of live virulent (smooth) Streptococcus pneumoniae.
D. The mouse did not survive when injected with a mixture of live, avirulent (rough) Streptococcus pneumoniae and heat-killed, virulent Streptococcus pneumoniae.
What results did Avery, McLeod, and McCarty obtain in their
experiments with virulent bacteria?
A. DNase destroyed the transforming activity.
B. Protease destroyed the transforming activity.
C. RNase destroyed the transforming activity.
D. The transforming principle was too complex and difficult to be purified.
Guanine and adenine are purines found in DNA.
Which of the following statements about DNA structure is true?
A. The nucleic acid strands in a DNA molecule are oriented antiparallel to each other, meaning they run in opposite directions.
B. Nucleic acids are formed through phosphodiester bonds that link nucleosides together.
C. Hydrogen bonds formed between the sugar‑phosphate backbones of the two DNA chains help to stabilize DNA structure.
D. The pentose sugar in DNA is ribose.
What is the complementary DNA sequence to 5′ ATGCTTGACTG 3′?
A. 5′ CAGTCAAGCAT 3′
B. 5′ ATGCTTGACTG 3′
C. 5′ ACTCTACGTAG 3′
D. 5′ TACGAACTGAC 3′
The results of the Meselson-Stahl experiments relied on all of the
following except _______.
A. that a heavy isotope of nitrogen could be incorporated into replicating DNA molecules
B. a cesium chloride gradient
C. the fact that DNA is the genetic material
D. a means of distinguishing among the distribution patterns of newly synthesized and parent molecule DNA possible
After observing the results of one round of replication, the
scientists obtained results from a second round. The purpose of one
additional round of replication was to _______.
A.distinguish between semi-conservative and dispersive replication
B. distinguish between conservative and dispersive replication
C. confirm that replication is conservative
D. distinguish between conservative and semi-conservative replication
Which of the following would result from a third round of replication
using the methods of Meselson and Stahl?
A. One heavy band, one light band, and one intermediate band
B. One light band and one intermediate band
C. One light band
D. One heavy band
In the Meselson-Stahl experiment, which mode of replication was
eliminated based on data derived after one generation of replication?
D. none of the modes
During DNA replication, an open section of DNA, in which a DNA polymerase can replicate DNA is called a
_____ are the short sections of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand of the replicating DNA
Only one primer needed, made continuously, and daughter strand
elongates toward replication fork.
The leading strand is made continuously from a single RNA primer located at the origin of replication. DNA pol III adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the leading strand so that it elongates toward the replication fork.
Multiple primers needed, daughter strand elongates away from
replication fork, and made in segments.
In contrast, the lagging strand is made in segments, each with its own RNA primer. DNA pol III adds nucleotides to the 3' end of the lagging strand so that it elongates away from the replication fork.
Both leading and lagging strand _____