APUSH Chapter 26

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1

Washington Conference

Washington Conference, also called Washington Naval Conference, byname of International Conference On Naval Limitation, (1921–22), international conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific area. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements.

2

The Five-Power Pact

The Five-Power Naval Limitation Treaty, which was signed by the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy on Feb. 6, 1922, grew out of the opening proposal at the conference by U.S. Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes to scrap almost 1,900,000 tons of warships belonging to the Great Powers.

3

Kellogg-Briand Pact

Kellogg-Briand Pact, also called Pact of Paris, Kellogg-Briand Pact: world leaders signing in Paris on Aug. 27, 1928 [Credit: Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images](Aug. 27, 1928), multilateral agreement attempting to eliminate war as an instrument of national policy. It was the most grandiose of a series of peacekeeping efforts after World War I.

4

Dawes Plan

Dawes Plan, arrangement for Germany’s payment of reparations after World War I. On the initiative of the British and U.S. governments, a committee of experts, presided over by an American financier, Charles G. Dawes, produced a report on the question of German reparations for presumed liability for World War I. The report was accepted by the Allies and by Germany on Aug. 16, 1924.

5

Facism

a way of organizing a society in which a government ruled by a dictator controls the lives of the people and in which people are not allowed to disagree with the government

6

"Good Neighbor Policy"

Good Neighbor Policy, popular name for the Latin American policy pursued by the administration of the U.S. president Franklin D. Roosevelt. Suggested by the president’s commitment “to the policy of the good neighbor”, the approach marked a departure from traditional American interventionism. The United States renounced its right to unilaterally intervene in the internal affairs of other nations at the Montevideo Conference (December 1933); the Platt Amendment, which sanctioned U.S. intervention in Cuba, was abrogated (1934); and the U.S. Marines were withdrawn from Haiti.

7

Neutrality Act

The Neutrality Acts were passed by the United States Congress in the 1930s, they were spurred by the growth in isolationism and non-interventionism in the US following its costly involvement in World War I, and sought to ensure that the US would not become entangled again in foreign conflicts.They made no distinction between aggressor and victim, treating both equally as "belligerents"; and they limited the US government's ability to aid Britain and France against Nazi Germany. The acts were largely repealed in 1941, in the face of German submarine attacks on U.S. vessels and the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.

8

Cash-and-Carry Policy

ash-and-carry policy was a WWII policy under Roosevelt. It allowed the sale of material to belligerent countries, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport and paid immediately in cash. Its purpose was to instill a sense of neutrality between the United States and European countries while still giving aid to Britain. Before this policy, it was illegal to sell anything or loan money to belligerent countries. Because the US was rebounding from the Great Depression, this policy also helped to create more manufacturing jobs.

9

Panay incident

The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat Panay while she was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now known as Nanjing), China on 12 December 1937. Japan and the United States were not at war at the time. The Japanese claimed that they did not see the American flags painted on the deck of the gunboat, apologized, and paid an indemnity. Nevertheless, the attack and the subsequent Allison incident in Nanking caused U.S. opinion to turn against the Japanese. Fon Huffman, the last survivor of the incident, died in 2008.[1]

10

Appeasement

In order to stop raging Hitler, many countries such as Britain tried to please him by compromising and settling for less by giving him land and then making a deal.

11

Destroyers for bases agreement

In the Destroyers for Bases Agreement between the United States and the United Kingdom on September 2 1940, fifty mothballed destroyers were transferred to the United Kingdom from the United States Navy in exchange for land rights on British possessions

12

America First Committee

The America First Committee (AFC) was the foremost non-interventionist pressure group against the American entry into World War II. Peaking at 800,000 paid members in 450 chapters, it was one of the largest anti-war organizations in American history.[1][2] Started in 1940, it shut down after the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 7, 1941.

13

"Lend Lease" Act

Proposed in late 1940 and passed in March 1941, the Lend-Lease Act was the principal means for providing U.S. military aid to foreign nations during World War II. It authorized the president to transfer arms or any other defense materials for which Congress appropriated money to “the government of any country whose defense the President deems vital to the defense of the United States.”

14

Atlantic Charter

The Atlantic Charter was a pivotal policy statement issued in August 14,1941 that, early in World War II, defined the Allied goals for the post-war world. It was drafted by the leaders of Britain and the United States, and later agreed to by all the Allies.

15

Pearl Harbor

The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941. The attack led to the United States' entry into World War II. The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.

16

Internment

Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[disambiguation needed][1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary. Such as the example of Japanese in America

17

US response to the Holocaust

US State Department policies made it very difficult for refugees to obtain entry visas. Despite the ongoing persecution of Jews in Germany, the State Department's attitude was influenced by the economic hardships of the Depression, which intensified grassroots antisemitism, isolationism, and xenophobia. Regardless almost half of all immigrants in 1941 were jews, once campes were found, U.S. provided humanitarian aid.

18

OPA

The Office of Price Administration (OPA) was established within the Office for Emergency Management of the United States government by Executive Order 8875 on August 28, 1941. The functions of the OPA were originally to control money and rents after the outbreak of World War II.

19

Manhattan Project

Manhattan Project, U.S. government research project (1942–45) that produced the first atomic bombs.American scientists, many of them refugees from fascist regimes in Europe, took steps in 1939 to organize a project to exploit the newly recognized fission process for military purposes. The first contact with the government was made by G.B. Pegram of Columbia University, who arranged a conference between Enrico Fermi and the Navy Department in March 1939.

20

A Phillip Randolph

Philip Randolph (April 15, 1889 – May 16, 1979) was a leader in the African-American civil-rights movement, the American labor movement and socialist political parties.He organized and led the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, the first predominantly black labor union. In the early civil-rights movement, Randolph led the March on Washington Movement, which convinced President Franklin D. Roosevelt to issue Executive Order 8802 in 1941, banning discrimination in the defense industries during World War II.

21

CORE

The Congress of Racial Equality or CORE is a U.S. civil rights organization that played a pivotal role for African-Americans in the Civil Rights Movement. Founded in 1942, CORE was one of the "Big Four" civil rights organizations, along with the SCLC, the SNCC, and the NAACP. Though still extant, CORE has been much less influential since the end of the 1955–1968 civil rights movement.

22

"code-talkers"

Code talkers were people who used obscure languages as a means of secret communication during wartime. The term is now usually associated with the United States soldiers during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native-American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages.

23

"zoot-suit riots"

The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of riots in 1943 during World War II that broke out in Los Angeles, California, between Anglo American sailors and Marines stationed in the city and Latino youths, who were recognizable by the zoot suits they favored. Mexican Americans and white military personnel were the main parties in the riots, and some African American and Filipino/Filipino American youths were involved as well.

24

WAACs & WAVEs

WAVES on 30 July 1942 was established as a World War II division of the U.S. Navy, that consisted entirely of women in the 1940s, but on 12 June 1948, women gained permanent status in the armed services of the United States. The name was the acronym for "Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service

25

Normandy Invasion

The Invasion of Normandy was the invasion and establishment of Western Allied forces in Normandy, during Operation Overlord in 1944 during World War II, the largest amphibious invasion to ever take place.


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