Regulation of Gene Expression in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
College: Third year, College: Fourth year
Lactose is an inducer of the lac operon.
What is the role of glucose in catabolite repression?
It stimulates transcription from the lac operon, causing an increase in cAMP levels in the cell.
It decreases the levels of cAMP in the cell, repressing transcription from the lac operon.
It increases the levels of cAMP in the cell, stimulating transcription from the lac operon.
It represses transcription from the lac operon, causing a decrease in cAMP levels in the cell.
What would be the effect of a mutation in the lacI gene that prevented the repressor from binding to lactose?
The lac Z, Y, and A genes would not be expressed.
The lac Z, Y, and A genes would be repressed by lactose.
The lac Z, Y, and A genes would be induced by lactose.
The lac Z, Y, and A genes would be expressed constitutively.
Which of the following mutations could lead to constitutive expression of the genes of the lac operon?
A mutation in the lac-Y gene
A mutation in the operator sequence
A super repressor mutation
A mutation in the lac-Z gene
Which of the following best describes the biological role of the lac operon?
It ensures that bacterial cells produce lactose only when no other food sources are available.
It prevents other sugars from being metabolized until all available lactose has been used.
It ensures that a cell produces enzymes involved in lactose metabolism in a constitutive manner.
It ensures that a cell dedicates resources to the production of enzymes involved in lactose metabolism only when lactose is available in the environment.
The placement of the operator sequence between the promotor and the structural genes is critical to the proper function of the lac operon.
Under the system of genetic control of the tryptophan operon, ________.
when there are high levels of tryptophan in the medium, transcription of the trp operon occurs at high levels
when there is no tryptophan in the medium, transcription of the trp operon occurs at high levels
when there are high levels of tryptophan in the medium, transcription of CAP (CRP) occurs at high levels
no transcription occurs under any nutritional circumstance because negative controls inhibit transcription
when there are high levels of tryptophan in the medium, ribosomes "stall" and reduce the levels of tryptophan synthesized
Which of the following occurs as a result of an abundance of tryptophan in E. coli?
The leader sequence is not transcribed.
The 5 trp genes (TrpA – TrpE) are not transcribed.
The 5 trp genes (TrpA – TrpE) are transcribed, but not translated.
Stalling of the ribosome at trp codons in the leader sequence
Which of the following features of the trp operon is likely least essential to the process of attenuation?
Trp codons near the beginning of the leader sequence
Transcription and translation of the leader sequence occur simultaneously.
The ability of sequences within the leader mRNA to pair with one another
The order of the structural genes, E, D, C, B, A
Attenuator systems such as the one described for regulation of tryptophan synthesis would be just as likely to occur in eukaryotes as in prokaryotes.
What are transcription factors?
Regulatory motifs that bind to the promoter region of a gene
Regulatory DNA sequences that bind to the promoter region of a gene
Regulatory proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences
Regulatory DNA sequences that bind to a protein
Which of the following elements is not a DNA binding domain?
Alternative splicing is an example of gene regulation that occurs after the synthesis of mRNA.
_______ _____ changes in DNA/chromosome structure that can influence overall gene output
____ sequences in DNA to which transcription factors and RNA polymerase bind to initiate transcription
_____ cis-acting DNA sequences to which transcription factors bind to regulate transcription. They can act over distances of thousands of base pairs and can be upstream, downstream, or internal to the gene they affect
The addition of a 5' cap and poly A tail, and removal of introns are all steps in ___ ___ and ____
What is the role of the lacZ gene product, the enzyme ß-galactosidase?
It converts simple sugars to lactose.
It converts lactose to glucose and galactose.
It facilitates the entry of lactose into the bacterial cell.
It removes the toxic by-products of lactose digestion from the bacterial cell.
What is the effect on transcription of the structural and regulatory genes of the lac operon when lactose is present in the environment?
The genes are transcribed for only a single generation and then are shut off.
Transcription of the structural genes occurs.
Lactose represses the synthesis of the repressor.
Transcription does not occur.